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Fungicides for Field Crops

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Fungicides for Field Crops

  Front Matter

 

Title Page and Preface

i-iii

 

Sponsors

iv

 

Acknowledgments
  

v-vi
  Part I: Introduction

 

Fungicide Use:
  This section discusses the use of fungicides to protect the potential yield and quality of a crop. The recent increase in fungicide use in field crops is explained as a result of a combination of factors, including higher market prices for some crops, increased levels of disease, and the availability and marketing of new fungicides.
  
      

2

 
Fungicide Terminology:  This section reviews key terms and concepts pertaining to fungicides and their use. Definitions are given of the three kinds of fungicide names (chemical name, common name, and trade name), and a sample product label is provided to show where to locate this information. This section also explains the criteria used to classify fungicides: mobility, protective role, metabolic activity, mode of action, chemical group or class, and FRAC code.
   
      

4

 
Fungicide Application:  This section covers the various methods of applying fungicides. Discussion focuses on the two primary methods—foliar application and seed treatments—and addresses the issues involved in using each method effectively.
   
      

10
  Part II: Decision-Making Factors for Fungicide Use

 

Decision-Making Process for Applying a Foliar Fungicide:
  This section identifies the factors to consider in deciding whether to apply a fungicide to a field crop: economics, disease severity and risk, cultivar selection, production practices and inoculum level, and environment (including weather). In sum, the greatest chance of success comes when a fungicide is applied to prevent yield loss in a field at high risk for disease.
   
      

16

 
Factors in the Success or Failure of Foliar Fungicide Application:  This section identifies factors to consider before, during, and after application. Preapplication factors include level of disease, risk of disease development, diagnosis accuracy, fungicide selection, and storage. During the spraying process, factors include application rate and timing, mixing, sprayer calibration, and environmental conditions. Postapplication factors include resistance, phytotoxicity, and field variability.
   
      

20

 
Conducting On-Farm Comparisons to Test Fungicides:  This section discusses the importance of conducting on-farm trials to validate the effectiveness of fungicide applications. The steps in developing an on-farm trial are outlined, and guidelines are provided for site selection, equipment selection and calibration, and other considerations. Also provided is a basic discussion of statistical issues, such as experimental error, randomization, and replication.
   
    

25
  Part III: Fungicide Stewardship

 

Fungicide Resistance and the FRAC Code:
  This section explains resistance in terms of mode of action, selection pressure, and characteristics of the pathogen and fungicide. A table provides FRAC codes for groups of fungicides applied to field crops in the United States and Canada, and management practices are offered that can minimize the risk of developing resistance, such as monitoring, integrated pest management (IPM), fungicide mixing and alternating, and following label recommendations.
    
      

30

 
Chemical Classes:  This section is organized by FRAC codes and describes the 19 groups of fungicides currently applied to field crops in the United States and Canada. The information provided for each fungicide group includes its basic use and application, mode of action, and mobility in plants.
   
  

36
  Part IV: Using Fungicides to Manage Diseases on Field Crops

 

This part addresses using fungicides to manage diseases on 16 field crops: alfalfa, canola, corn, cotton, dry beans, flax, peanut, potato, pulse crops (chickpea, lentil, field pea), rice, small grains (barley, wheat), sorghum, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower, and tobacco. Each crop is treated in a separate section that discusses foliar application and seed treatment and provides a table identifying diseases of that crop, including what causes them and how fungicides can be used to manage them.
   
  

  Bibliography and Index

 

Bibliography

103

 

Index

105