Since the commercialization of Bt corn hybrids with activity against corn rootworm larvae in 2003, many aspects of corn rootworm management have changed greatly. Many growers discontinued use of planting time soil insecticides. Changes in cropping systems, less insecticide use and in some cases weather factors (e.g., mild winters) have led to increases in corn rootworm populations in some areas. More recently, reports of changes in susceptibility of western corn rootworm in Iowa and Illinois to two of the Bt proteins used in hybrids, and unexpected damage by rootworms to Bt corns in other states, has led to increased interest and concerns about rootworm management. Growers are increasingly using soil insecticides at planting, and/or foliar insecticides for adult control on Bt corn rootworm hybrids in high rootworm density fields. Educational programs to increase understanding of rootworm biology and behavior, and current management options are needed to maintain grower profitability and sustainability of Bt corn and other management options. The major focus of these programs will be on the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.
Estimation of Efficacy Functions for Products Used to Manage Corn Rootworm Larval Injury
RNA Interference as a Pest Management Tool for Western Corn Rootworm
Rootworm Biology and Behavior
Resistance Evolution and IRM for Rootworm
Adult Corn Rootworm Suppression
Larval Corn Rootworm Management
Decision Tree for Grower Management Options: Re-Learning Corn Rootworm Management in the Transgenic Era
Resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. Corn Belt. Cullen, Eileen M.; Gray, Michael E.; Gassmann, Aaron J.; Hibbard, Bruce E.. 2013. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Volume 4, Number 3, 2013, pp. D1-D6(6)
Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm. J. Gassmann, J. L. Petzold–Maxwell, R. S. Keweshan, M. W. Dunbar. 2011. PLoS ONE 6: e22629.
Handy Bt Trait Table. C. DiFonzo and E. Cullen. 2014.