Panama Disease: An Old Nemesis Rears its Ugly Head - Part 2. The Cavendish Era and Beyond

The production of hybrids is similar in the various banana breeding programs. The following pictures were taken at either the Fundación Hondureña de Investigación Agrícola (FHIA) in Honduras, or the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) in Nigeria (the latter program has since relocated to Cameroon). Fig. 18. Female flowers are hand pollinated. Fig. 19. Mature, hybridized fruit are then ripened to facilitate seed extraction.Fig. 20. Fruit pulp is expressed with a mechanical press, Fig. 21, the black seed are removed and, Fig. 22 (shown here), cleaned. To optimize the recovery of hybrids, embryo rescue is performed on the recovered seeds. Cleaned seeds are surface disinfested, their seed coats removed, and, Fig. 23, the embryos placed on a synthetic medium. Germinated embyros, Fig. 24, are ultimately transferred to the field for evaluation (photos courtesy of R. C. Ploetz).



Image from Plant Health Progress article:
Panama Disease: An Old Nemesis Rears its Ugly Head - Part 2. The Cavendish Era and Beyond