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Asian soybean rust: last reports from Argentina.

Presenter: Silvia Edith Lopez, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales - Universidad de Buenos Aires
Coauthor(s): M.A. Carmona1, M.E. Gally1, M.V. Avanzato2, F. Sautua2. 1Fitopatología - Facultad de Agronomía - Universidad de Buenos Aires; 2Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental - Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales - Universidad de Buenos Aires Argentina

Soybean production in Argentina rose to 38.3 million metric tons with a cropped area of 14.4 million hectares in 2004/05 growing season. Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow, was detected in 2002 in a limited area in the northeast of the country, extended rapidly throughout soybean growing regions of Northwest and Northeast Regions in 2003-2004 and through Pampeana Region in 2004-2005. Disease severity during 2003-2004 ranged from 72 to 232 pustules/cm2 in soybean and 5 to 78 in kudzu, and from 1 to 15 uredinia/lesion in soybean and 1 to 10 in kudzu. Telia were found in the following provinces: Chaco, Santiago del Estero and Salta during 2004 and in Entre Rios (Villaguay) in 2005, reaching 31 S in March 2005. Last winter ASR was found by several researchers on volunteer soybean plants since July to September in some provinces. Urediniospores from samples collected last may, germinated after 6 month under -18C. Preliminary experiences with triazoles and triazoles + strobilurins, performed in Villaguay (Entre Ríos) and General Vedia (Chaco) during 2005, were significantly effective to control ASR. In the former, the average number of uredinia/cm2 in the lower part of the plants was 183 in controls and 40 - 50 in treated plots, and 326 versus 3 - 25 in the latter. This study was possible by the support of UBA (UBACyT G020) and Syngenta Agro.

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