© 2004 Plant Management Network.
Rice Response to Planting Date Differs at Two Locations in Louisiana
Steven D. Linscombe, Professor and Regional Extension Director, Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service, Rice Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, P.O. Box 1429, Crowley 70527; David L. Jordan, former Assistant Professor, Northeast Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and currently at Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7620, Raleigh 27695-7620; Ann B. Burns, Research Associate, Northeast Research Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, P.O. Box 438, St. Joseph 71366; Ryan P. Viator, former Graduate Research Assistant, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, and currently at USDA/ARS, P.O. Box 470, Houma, LA 70361
Corresponding author: David L. Jordan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Linscombe, S. D., Jordan, D. L., Burns, A. B., and Viator, R. P. 2004. Rice response to planting date differs at two locations in Louisiana. Online. Crop Management doi:10.1094/CM-2004-0130-01-RS.
Planting date can have a dramatic effect on crop development and yield. Determining if rice cultivars respond differently to planting date is important when selecting the most appropriate cultivar for a particular planting date. Research was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at two locations in Louisiana to determine the number of days from seedling emergence to 50% panicle emergence and rough rice grain yield of the cultivars Bengal, Cypress, Jodon, and Kaybonnet when drill seeded at five dates ranging from late March through early June. The interaction of cultivar by planting date for days required to reach 50% panicle emergence and rough rice grain yield was not significant. However, planting date had a major effect on days required to reach 50% panicle emergence and grain yield. Grain yield at one location in southwest Louisiana was highest (8600 kg/ha) when rice was planted in late March, and grain yield decreased linearly as planting was delayed until early June (6500 kg/ha). In northeast Louisiana, grain yield was lower when seeded in late March (5200 kg/ha), increased to a maximum in mid-April (7200 kg/ha), and decreased throughout the latter planting dates. Days from seedling emergence to 50% panicle emergence decreased at both locations as planting was delayed.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the USA is planted from early March through early June depending upon geographical location, physiological maturity of cultivars, and environmental conditions. In Louisiana, rice in the southwestern region of the state is generally seeded from early March through April, depending on environmental conditions, and from mid-April through early May in northern regions (1). Slaton et al. (25) reported optimum seeding dates of mid-February through March in southwest Louisiana and April in central Arkansas. Data comparing grain yield at various seeding dates in northeast Louisiana, one of the two major production areas in Louisiana, have not been reported.
Jodon (15) evaluated interactions of planting date and cultivar in Louisiana, although none of the cultivars evaluated are grown commercially today. In that study, grain yield and milling output varied by planting date and cultivar. Research with transplanted rice demonstrated a significant planting date by cultivar interaction in terms of yield (6). In Arkansas, planting date recommendations for specific cultivars are based on heat unit accumulation (13). Helms et al. (12) evaluated grain yield of 10 cultivars planted at five dates from 23 April through 30 June in Arkansas. Grain yield varied among cultivars, and there were some differences in cultivar response to planting date suggesting a possible interaction among planting date and cultivar selection. In a comprehensive review of seeding date comparisons, Slaton et al. (25) pooled data across cultivars to compare response to seeding date, although differences in cultivar response to seeding date were observed.
Current recommendations in Arkansas include planting dates of 23 April through 20 May to optimize yield (24). Differences in cultivar response to planting date were noted for late-season plantings compared with early-season planting dates. In Mississippi, planting date recommendations range from mid-April through mid-June (20). Kloserboer and McCauley (17) indicated that a 5% reduction in grain yield occurred for each week planting was delayed after 21 April in Texas.
Although Slaton et al. (25) discussed seeding date effects on rice grain yield in southwest Louisiana and central Arkansas, the effects of seeding date on rice grown in southwest Louisiana and northeast Louisiana have not been compared in the literature. Therefore, research was conducted from 1995 through 1997 at two locations in Louisiana to determine if relative maturity and grain yield of four rice cultivars differed when drill seeded from mid-March through early June.
Two Locations, Four Cultivars, and Five Planting Dates
Experiments were conducted from 1995 through 1997 at the Rice Research Station located near Crowley, LA on a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Albaqualfs) with 1.1% organic matter and pH 5.8. The experiment was also conducted during 1995 and 1996 at the Northeast Research Station located near St. Joseph, LA on a Sharkey clay soil (very fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, Vertic Haplaquepts) with 2.1% organic matter and pH 6.1. Latitudes for these respective locations are 30.12°N and 32.30°N. Rice was drill-seeded into conventionally prepared seedbeds using a cone planter set to deliver 20 seeds per foot of row at both locations. Plot size was 6 ft wide (8 drilled rows spaced 8 inches apart) by 20 ft long.
A medium grain cultivar Bengal and long grain cultivars Cypress, Jodon, and Kaybonnet were drill-seeded at five planting dates ranging from 23 March through 7 June (Table 1). These cultivars, while not currently grown on a widespread basis in Louisiana, were utilized in the late 1990s (19). The four cultivars were established in the same paddy for a given planting date. Production and pest management practices were similar across cultivars and planting dates, and were based on Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service recommendations (3,8,10,16,18,22). Phosphorus and K were applied during the winter prior to planting and were based on soil test recommendations. Nitrogen (as urea) was applied at 150 lb N per acre within five days prior to permanent flood establishment. A permanent flood was established approximately 4 weeks after seedling emergence and was maintained at a depth of approximately 4 inches throughout the season. Netting was placed approximately 4 ft above the rice canopy at both locations to protect panicles from bird feeding.
Table 1. Dates of planting at Crowley from 1995-1997 and St. Joseph from 1995-1996 in Louisiana.†
† Julian days of the year in parentheses.
Experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split plot arrangement of treatments. Planting date served as whole plot units and cultivars served as subplot units randomized within each planting date. Each whole plot unit was established in a separate paddy. Whole plots were not replicated for a given location-year combination. Subplot units were replicated four times within each whole plot unit. Years for each location were considered as replications and corresponded to three whole plot replications (1995, 1996, and 1997) at Crowley and two whole plot replications (1995 and 1996) at St. Joseph.
Number of days from seedling emergence required to reach 50% panicle emergence for each cultivar was recorded. Rough rice grain for the four cultivars for a given planting date was harvested on the same day when grain moisture was 20 to 25%. Final grain yield was adjusted to 12% moisture. Accumulation of heat units, referred to as DD-50 heat units, was calculated for the period of time from seedling emergence to harvest for each cultivar (23). Heat units were calculated each day by determining the difference between the average daily temperature and 50°F. The sum of heat units was compiled for each combination of cultivar and planting date. The DD-50 model assumes that physiological processes that influence growth and development of the rice plant slow or essentially stop at temperatures of 50°F or below (23). Rice producers and their advisors use heat units as a management tool to predict when specific cultural and pest management practices should be implemented to optimize production. Although soil and air temperatures were recorded daily at each location, these measurements were not recorded in the actual fields where rice was planted.
Data for Julian days required for 50% panicle emergence and rough rice grain yield were subjected to analysis of variance using a five (planting date) by four (cultivar) factorial treatment arrangement for each location. Means of significant main effects and interactions were separated using Fisher’s Protected LSD Test at P < 0.05. Correlation matrices of days required to reach 50% panicle emergence and rough rice grain yield were constructed. Regression procedures were used to determine significance (P < 0.05) of linear, quadratic, and cubic functions for days to reach 50% panicle emergence and rough rice grain yield versus planting date in Julian days. Regression procedures were performed based on results from the analysis of variance for the factorial treatment arrangement for all data.
Rice Yield, Planting Date, and Cultivar Selection
Interaction of planting date by cultivar was not significant for number of Julian days from seedling emergence to 50% panicle emergence at either location (Table 2). At Crowley, the main effect of planting date was significant for days required for rice to reach 50% panicle emergence and grain yield. However, the main effect of cultivar was not significant for either parameter. At St. Joseph, main effects of planting date and cultivar selection were significant for days to 50% panicle emergence. The main effect of cultivar was not significant for grain yield.
Table 2. Analysis of variance (P-value) for days required from seedling emergence to 50% panicle emergence and rough rice grain yield at Crowley.
† Years (1995, 1996, and 1997 at Crowley and 1995 and 1996 at St. Joseph) were considered as replications of whole plot treatments (planting date).
When pooled across planting dates at Crowley, there was no difference in days to reach 50% panicle emergence for the cultivars Bengal, Cypress, Jodon, or Kaybonnet (Table 3). In contrast, Jodon reached 50% panicle emergence in fewer days after seedling emergence than did Bengal, Cypress, or Kaybonnet at St. Joseph. The cultivar Bengal reached 50% panicle emergence more rapidly than Cypress or Kaybonnet, while the latter two reached 50% panicle emergence in a similar number of days. Jodon reached 50% panicle emergence in fewer days following seedling emergence than Bengal, Cypress, or Kaybonnet, which is similar to previous research (19). However, McKenzie et al. (19) also reported only a one-day difference in the number of days required for rice to reach 50% panicle emergence for the cultivars Bengal, Cypress, and Kaybonnet.
Table 3. Julian days required to reach 50% panicle emergence following seedling emergence and rice grain yield as influenced by cultivar selection at Crowley and St. Joseph.†
† Means with a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different according to Fisher’s Protected LSD Test at P < 0.05. Data are pooled over years and planting dates.
Grain yield did not differ among cultivars at either location when data were pooled across planting dates. Other research has shown relatively minor yield differences among cultivars Bengal, Cypress, Jodon, and Kaybonnet at a common planting date (19). Lack of a significant planting date by cultivar interaction suggests that relative yield differences among these cultivars most likely will not change when rice is planted from late March through early June. Virtually all pests were controlled in these studies, and agronomic practices such as fertilization and water management were implemented to optimize yield. Additional research is needed to determine if the interaction of planting date by cultivar would occur if rice were grown under less than optimum conditions.
Julian days from seedling emergence to 50% panicle emergence decreased as seeding was delayed from late March (82 days of the year) through early to mid-May (124 days of the year) at both locations (Fig. 1). After mid-May planting date, the number of days required for rice to reach 50% panicle emergence was relatively constant at both locations. As expected, as heat units increased per day, later-planted rice reached 50% panicle emergence more quickly than earlier planted rice growing under cooler temperatures with fewer heat unit accumulations. A positive correlation for Julian days to reach 50% panicle emergence versus heat unit accumulation was noted (P = 0.031, r = 0.28) at Crowley. In contrast, a negative correlation of Julian days to reach 50% panicle emergence versus the number of days after seedling emergence was significant (P = 0.0003, r = -0.45) at this location. A similar trend for Julian days required to reach 50% panicle emergence versus heat unit accumulation (P = 0.0152, r = 0.38) or versus the number of days after seedling emergence (P = 0.0001, r = -0.91) was noted at St. Joseph.
Regression analyses on actual data pooled across cultivars indicated a liner (P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.44) decrease in grain yield as planting was delayed at Crowley (Fig. 1). Rice grain yield decreased by approximately 10 lb/acre per day as seeding was delayed after 23 March. In contrast to results at Crowley, a cubic function was significant for grain yield versus days of the year at St. Joseph when pooled over cultivars (Fig. 1). Grain yield was lower when rice was seeded in late March compared with a maximum yield occurring when rice was seeded around 15 April (105 days of the year) at St. Joseph. Grain yield decreased throughout late April to mid-May plantings at this location. These data are consistent with current recommendations (1) indicating that optimum grain yield most likely will be obtained in southwestern and northeastern Louisiana when rice is planted in March and mid-April, respectively.
Grain yield at Crowley was negatively correlated with both DD-50 heat unit accumulation (P = 0.0001, r = -0.66) and days required to reach 50% panicle emergence (P = 0.0001, r = -0.72). This response was expected because the highest grain yield was recorded at the first planting date followed by a linear decrease in yield throughout the remaining planting dates. DD-50 heat unit accumulation increased as planting was delayed although the number of days required to reach 50% panicle emergence decreased. At St. Joseph, grain yield was positively correlated with the number of days required to reach 50% panicle emergence (P = 0.0023, r = 0.47) and negatively correlated with days of the year (P = 0.0001, r = -0.59). The correlation of grain yield and DD-50 heat unit accumulation was not significant at this location (P = 0.5408, r = 0.099).
A number of factors could be influencing grain yield response at these locations when comparing planting dates. In southwest Louisiana, temperatures are relatively high from May throughout the remainder of the growing season compared and those in northeast Louisiana during mid-April and May (data not shown). Higher temperatures during grain development and maturation that persist during the latter plantings may decrease efficiency of carbon fixation by rice, a C-3 plant (4,11). This could influence grain weight (21) and total yield (2) negatively. Additionally, high temperatures that are noted in southwest Louisiana often result in development of blank heads, a physiological disorder associated with poor pollen formation and fertilization (7). Later-planted rice is often more susceptible to panicle blight (Burkholderia glumae) (1). These factors may explain why maximum grain yield was obtained when rice was planted in late March at Crowley, with a steady decrease in grain yield with planting thereafter.
In northeast Louisiana, air and soil temperatures are generally lower in March compared to those in southwest Louisiana during the same period of time (data not shown). Rice seeded in March in northeast Louisiana is generally subjected to cooler temperatures during emergence and seedling development when compared to temperatures during planting and rice emergence in April and May. Soil temperatures also may be lower in northeast Louisiana than in southwest Louisiana in March and early April (data not presented). Reduction in stand density due to cool temperatures during emergence is well documented (5). Cool temperatures, even for short durations, can permanently decrease photosynthesis (9). Furthermore, cool temperatures can decrease spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and inflorescence branch number (14). This may explain the relatively low grain yields at St. Joseph with the earliest planted rice compared with yields obtained with mid-April plantings. Recording soil temperatures in plots would have contributed to a better understanding of yield response at the two locations, especially during the earlier plantings. Although not the case in these experiments, growers often apply irrigation to ensure seed germination and stand establishment. Water used in this process early in the season is often cooler than desired, and this can have negative effects on seedling growth. Lower yields of rice seeded in May and June compared with seeding in mid-April may have been associated with reduced carbon fixation efficiency and physiological disorders as yield-limiting factors suspected at Crowley when temperatures were higher.
Results from these studies suggest that rice yield potential is affected more by planting date than by cultivar selection when pests are controlled and cultural practices are implemented to optimize grain yield. These data also suggest that grain yield of the cultivars Bengal, Cypress, Jodon, and Kaybonnet most likely will be comparable over a wide range of planting dates. Grain yield response to similar planting dates differed in southwest Louisiana compared with response in northeast Louisiana. Planting rice in late March resulted in the highest grain yields in southwest Louisiana while seeding in mid-April was the more effective planting date in northeast Louisiana. These planting dates and cultivar recommendations are currently implemented in Louisiana (1). Slaton et al. (25) reported the apex of rice grain yield occurred approximately 8 March and 12 April at Crowley, LA and Stuttgart, AR, respectively. Our results suggest that the optimum yield of rice grown in St. Joseph, LA, which is central with respect to latitude as the two locations in the article by Slayton et al. (25), occurred approximately 10 April. The experiment at St. Joseph was conducted on a Vertic Haplaquepts soil compared with Typic Albaqualfs at Crowley and Stuttgart (25). Additional research comparing rice response to seeding date on additional soils with a wider range of chemical and physical properties would improve recommendations of optimum seeding dates for dry-seeded rice in the mid-South region of the United States.
Louisiana rice producers supported this research with funds administered through the Louisiana Rice Research Board. Appreciation is expressed to personnel at the Rice Research Station and the Northeast Research Station for technical assistance with these studies.
1. Anonymous. 2003. Rice variety and management tips. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2270. Baton Rouge, LA.
2. Baker, J. T., Albrecht, S. L., Pan, D., Allen, L. H., Pickering, N. B., and Boote, K. J. 1994. Carbon dioxide and temperature effects on rice (Oryza-Sativa L, Cv Ir-72). Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 53:90-97.
3. Bollich, P. K., Saichuk, J. K., and Funderburg, E. R. 1999. Soils, plant nutrition and fertilization. Pages 32-36 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
4. Burger, A. W. 1984. Crop classification. Pages 1-12 in: Physiological Basis of Crop Growth and Development. M. B. Tesar, ed. ASA-CSSA, Madison, WI.
5. Caton, B. P., Foin, T. C., Gibson, K. D., and Hill, J. E. 1998. A temperature-based model of direct-water-seeded rice (Oryza sativa) stand establishment in California. Agric. For. Meteorol. 90:91-102.
6. Chandra, D., Lodh, S. B., Sahoo, K. M., and Nanda, B. B. 1997. Effect of date of planting and spacing on grain yield and quality of scented rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in wet season in Coastal Orissa. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 67:93-97.
7. Dennis, F. G., Jr. 1984. Fruit development. Pages 265-290 in: Physiological Basis of Crop Growth and Development. M. B. Tesar, ed. ASA-CSSA, Madison, WI.
8. Dunand, R. T. 1999. Growth and development of the rice plant. 1999. Pages 12-19 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
9. Gesch, R. W., and Heilman, J. L. 1999. Responses of photosynthesis and phosphorylation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II to chilling temperature in ecologically divergent cultivars of rice. Environ. Exp. Bot. 41:257-266.
10. Groth, D. E., Rush, M. C., and Hollier, C. A. 1999. Pest management - disease management. Pages 50-85 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
11. Guo, P. G., and Li, R. H. 2000. Effects of high nocturnal temperature on photosynthetic organization in rice leaves. Acta Bot. Sin. 42:673-678.
12. Helms, R. S., Slaton, N. A., Gravois, K. A., and Grove, J. A. 1994. Influence of planting date on performance of rice varieties. Proc. Rice Tech. Work. Gr. 25:146.
13. Helms, R. S., and Slaton, N. A. 1994. Rice stand establishment. Pages 17-20 in: Rice Production Handbook. Ark. Coop. Ext. Ser. MP-192. Little Rock, AR.
14. Jacobs, B. C., and Pearson, C. J. 1999. Growth, development and yield of rice in response to cold temperature. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 182:79-88.
15. Jodon, N. E. 1953. Growing period of leading rice cultivars grown on different dates. LA Agric. Mech. Coll. Exp. Stn. Bull. No. 476.
16. Jordan, D. L., and Sanders, D. E. 1999. Pest management - weed management. Pages 37-50 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA
17. Klosterboer, D. D., and McCauley, G. N. 2002. Planting dates. Page 7 in: 2002 Rice Production Guide. Pub. D-1253, Tex. Coop. Ext. Ser., Tex. A&M Univ., College Station, TX.
18. Linscombe, S. D., Saichuk, J. E., Seilhan, K. P., Bollich, P. K., and Funderburg, E. R. 1999. General agronomic guidelines. Pages 5-11 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
19. McKenzie, K. S., Linscombe, S. D., Jodari, F. L., Oard, J. H., and White, L. M., III. 1999. Rice varieties. Pages 23-31 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
20. Miller, T. C., and Street, J. E. 2000. Mississippi rice growers guide. Miss. Coop. Ext. Ser. Pub 2255, Starkville, MS.
21. Morita, S. 2000. Effects of high air temperature on ripening in rice plants - Analysis of ripening performance in growth chamber experiments. Jpn. J. Crop Sci. 69:391-399.
22. Ring, D. R., Barbour, J., Rice, W. C., Stout, M., and Muegge, M. 1999. Pest management-insect management. Pages 85-93 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
23. Saichuk, J. K., Linscombe, S. D., and Bollich, P. K. 1999. DD-50 rice management program. Pages 20-22 in: Louisiana Rice Production Handbook. C. A. Hollier, ed. LA State Univ. Agric. Cent. Pub. 2321, Baton Rouge, LA.
24. Slaton, N., and Cartwright, R. 2003. Rice stand establishment. Pages 21-28 in: Rice Production Handbook MP-192. Ark. Cooper. Ext. Ser., Little Rock, AR.
25. Slaton, N. A., Linscombe, S. D., Norman, R. J., and Gbur, E. E., Jr. 2003. Seeding date effect on rice grain yields in Arkansas and Louisiana. Agron. J. 95:218-223.