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© 2006 Plant Management Network.
Accepted for publication 18 March 2006. Published 5 May 2006.


Synopsis of Fungi Listed as Regulated Plant Pests by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Notes on Nomenclature, Disease, Plant Hosts, and Geographic Distribution


Erica T. Cline Post-Doctoral Researcher, and David F. Farr, Research Scientist, Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville MD 20705-2350


Corresponding author: Erica T. Cline. ecline@nt.ars-grin.gov


Cline, E. T. and Farr, D. F. 2006. Synopsis of fungi listed as regulated plant pests by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Notes on nomenclature, disease, plant hosts, and geographic distribution. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-0505-01-DG.


Abstract

To prevent the entry of exotic fungal pathogens, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has compiled a list of regulated plant pests of concern to the U.S., including more than 50 species of fungi that might cause serious economic or environmental damage. The fungi on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List represent some of the most significant threats to U.S. agriculture. For each of these fungal species, a synopsis was prepared that presents notes on nomenclature, disease, plant hosts, and geographic distribution. The following scientific names should be updated: Cercospora batatas (Pseudocercospora timorensis), Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri (Chrysomyxa rhododendri), Crinipellis perniciosa (Moniliophthora perniciosa), Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae (Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae), Pucciniastrum areolatum (Thekopsora areolata), and Stereum hiugense (Xylobolus hiugensis). Nomenclatural controversies are discussed for some species, including Diaporthe mali and Monilinia fructigena. Changes in nomenclature often reflect advances in taxonomic understanding, resulting in transfers to a different genus, modifications of lists of taxonomic synonyms, or establishing anamorph/teleomorph connections. These changes can have important implications for accurately determining the geographic distribution and host range of a fungus. Accurate information about scientific names, geographic distribution, and plant host range is essential in determining pest risk and in preventing the introduction and spread of invasive fungal pathogens.


Table of Contents

• Introduction

• Aecidium hydrangeae-paniculatae; Alternate State (Teleomorph): Puccinia glyceriae

• Aecidium mori

• Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae Note: Listed by APHIS as Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae; Alternate State (Teleomorph): Phacidium coniferarum

• Beauveria spp.

• Ceratocystis fimbriata

• Cercospora batatas: See Pseudocercospora timorensis

• Chrysomyxa abietis

• Chrysomyxa himalensis

• Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri: See Chrysomyxa rhododendri

• Chrysomyxa rhododendri Note: Listed by APHIS as Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri; Alternate State (Anamorph): Uredo rhododendri

• Crinipellis perniciosa var. perniciosa: See Moniliophthora perniciosa

• Cronartium flaccidum; Alternate State (Anamorph): Peridermium cornui

• Diaporthe mali Bres. 1902

• Elsinoë australis; Alternate State (Anamorph): Sphaceloma australis

• Elsinoë batatas; Alternate State (Anamorph): Sphaceloma batatas

• Entomophthora spp.

• Entyloma oryzae

• Fusarium fuliginosporum

• Guignardia pyricola

• Gymnosporangium asiaticum; Alternate State (Anamorph): Roestelia koreensis

• Hemileia vastatrix

• Lachnellula willkommii

• Melanomma glumarum

• Monilinia fructigena and Related Brown Fruit Rots.

• Monilinia fructigena; Alternate State (Anamorph): Monilia fructigena

• Moniliophthora perniciosa Note: Listed by APHIS as Crinipellis perniciosa

• Moniliophthora roreri

• Oncobasidium theobromae

• Oospora oryzetorum Sacc. 1916 Note: Not a fungus.

• Peronosclerospora maydis

• Peronosclerospora philippinensis

• Peronosclerospora sacchari

• Pestalotiopsis disseminata

• Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae: See Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae

• Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenw.) J.F.H. Beyma 1940

• Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae Hickman 1940

• Pseudocercospora timorensis Note: Listed by APHIS as Cercospora batatae

• Pseudopezicula tracheiphila; Alternate State (Anamorph): Phialophora tracheiphila

• Puccinia gladioli; Alternate State (Anamorph): Aecidium valerianellae

• Puccinia horiana

• Puccinia mccleanii

• Pucciniastrum actinidiae

• Pucciniastrum areolatum: See Thekopsora areolata

• Rhacodiella vitis

• Rosellinia necatrix; Alternate State (Anamorph): Dematophora necatrix

• Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae

• Septoria melanosa var. melanosa

• Stereum hiugense: See Xylobolus hiugensis

• Stigmina deflectens

• Synchytrium endobioticum Note: APHIS Select Agent

• Thekopsora areolata Note: Listed by APHIS as Pucciniastrum areolatum; Alternate State (Anamorph): Aecidium strobilinum

• Tilletia indica

• Trachysphaera fructigena

• Uredo dioscoreae-alatae; Alternate State (Teleomorph) Goplana dioscoreae nom. illeg.

• Uredo gladioli-buettneri

• Urocystis agropyri

• Urocystis tritici

• Uromyces gladioli

• Uromyces nyikensis

• Uromyces transversalis; Alternate State (Anamorph): Uredo transversalis

• Uromycladium tepperianum

• Xylobolus hiugensis Note: Listed by APHIS as Stereum huigense



Introduction

Pathogenic fungi annually cause billions of dollars of damage to agricultural crops, roughly equal in value to that caused by insect damage. It is critical that agricultural production as well as non-cultivated plant resources be protected by preventing the entry of invasive fungal pathogens. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has compiled a list of plant pests of quarantine concern to the U.S., including more than 50 species of fungi. The APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List includes pests from the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (7 CFR 300-399), pests frequently intercepted at U.S. ports of entry, and pests that otherwise might cause serious economic or environmental damage. The list provides an official foundation for policy decisions surrounding trade and plant quarantine issues. As such, the list plays a critical role in safeguarding U.S. agriculture and protecting native ecosystems.

The fungi on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List represent some of the most significant threats to U.S. agriculture. It is important to ensure that accurate information is accessible to all stakeholders. We have prepared a synopsis for each of the fungi on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List giving scientific names, connections to alternate states (i.e., anamorph/teleomorph), and taxonomic synonyms based on the most recent taxonomic publications. This information is critical for accurately determining the geographic distribution and host range for a fungus. For example, a fungus may be reported only under the name of a synonym in some regions. Some fungi may occur on one host as an anamorph but on an alternate host as a teleomorph. This is particularly common for the rusts, which represent nearly half of the species on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List.

Three of the fungi on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List are also listed as APHIS Select AgentsPeronosclerospora philippinensis, Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae, and Synchytrium endobioticum. Select Agents are chosen based on their potential to cause substantial harm to human, plant, or animal health. They are tightly regulated by APHIS in keeping with their mandate to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of bioterrorism and other public health emergencies that could threaten either public health and safety or American agriculture.

We have limited the scope of this paper to the fungi included on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List, but many additional plant pathogenic fungi not already in the U.S. and not on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List are also of quarantine concern. The APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List must periodically be revised to reflect updated information or changes in the status of pests (e.g., geographic distribution), and name changes for taxonomic or nomenclatural reasons. In some cases, the listed fungus may be a harmless saprobe or endophyte, or occur only on insects (e.g., Beauveria spp., Entomophthora spp., Cordyceps spp.). Other plant pests may already be widespread in the United States, so that quarantine is pointless. We have consciously refrained from expressing any judgement as to the appropriateness of including each of these fungi on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List. We have prepared these synopses in the hopes that, by providing updated nomenclature, host range, and geographic distribution, this information will establish a foundation for future revisions of the list.

A web-based publication is particularly appropriate for this subject, because it makes it possible to direct the reader to additional information — in particular, to the continuously updated nomenclature and fungus-host records available from the Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory (SBML) website of the USDA Agricultural Research Service (2).

To ensure accuracy and clarity of communication, scientific names are used to designate the pests included in the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List. Scientific names are regulated by a codified set of rules, the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (3). Scientific names may change occasionally, often to conform to changes in taxonomic judgment or recent scientific discoveries about the relationships of these fungi (e.g., Moniliophthora perniciosa). Names may sometimes change as a result of changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) voted upon by the International Botanical Congress. Name changes sometimes can result in confusion; access to critical information may be lost when literature or data records are associated with incorrect names.

The SBML has developed a database of accepted scientific names and their synonyms of fungi of importance to agriculture. The accepted scientific name is linked to known nomenclatural or taxonomic synonyms, which allows the user to search under all present and historical names for data about geographic distribution, plant host associations, herbarium specimens, and scientific literature references. Another website providing information about fungal accepted scientific names and synonyms is Index Fungorum (1).

In updating the SBML nomenclature database, the authors encountered several names on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List which should be corrected to reflect currently accepted scientific names. These include Cercospora batatas (Pseudocercospora timorensis), Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri (Chrysomyxa rhododendri), Crinipellis perniciosa (Moniliophthora perniciosa), Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae (Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae), Pucciniastrum areolatum (Thekopsora areolata), and Stereum hiugense (Xylobolus hiugensis). We also encountered cases where inadequate information or controversy surrounding nomenclature could result in confusion. For example, see Diaporthe mali Bres. 1902, not to be confused with Diaporthe mali Miura 1915, a synonym of Diaporthe eres Nitschke 1870. There is also considerable confusion concerning Monilinia fructigena and related brown fruit rots.

For each fungus on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List, we provide a synopsis of the currently accepted scientific name (in green font), all known nomenclatural synonyms (preceded by ≡), and all known taxonomic synonyms (preceded by =). Dates of publication and discrepancies of author citation have been verified by consulting historical literature, i.e., the original protologue or diagnosis, when possible. Homonyms and invalid names are denoted by brackets. The format generally follows that of the SBML nomenclature website. Notes on nomenclature, including citations of relevant Articles of the ICBN, are provided for additional clarification. Sources consulted to produce nomenclatural reports are cited at the end of each entry, as are those associated with controversial taxonomic judgments.

Brief notes on geographic distribution, substrate, disease characteristics, and plant hosts provide a summary of information available for the fungus, based upon data from the accepted name and all its synonyms. The American Phytopathological Society (APS) Common Names of Plant Diseases were followed when available. These notes represent data available at the time of publication. For the most recently updated information, and documented links to more detailed explanations, we refer the reader to the SBML nomenclature website where searches can be performed using the accepted scientific name of a fungus and any of its synonyms.

Within the document, links allow the reader to move from the Table of Contents to listings for individual fungi. Fungi are listed alphabetically by accepted name. Names on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List that differ from the currently accepted name are listed alphabetically with a link to the appropriate accepted name (in green font). When an additional species name has been listed for comparison to a species on the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List, the name for comparison is not included in the Table of Contents, and the name is listed in black font. Links to SBML webpages providing diagnostic information and other additional information are provided for some species.

We hope that by combining the latest information on these important plant pathogens within a single document, these synopses will prove useful in the effort to prevent the entry of exotic pests and combat their spread.


Literature Cited

1. CABI Bioscience. 2003. IndexFungorum: Database of fungal names. Online. CABI Bioscience, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS), and Landcare Research.

2. Farr, D. F., Rossman, A. Y., Palm, M. E., and McCray, E. B. 2006. Online. Fungal Databases, Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA.

3. International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT). 2000. International code of botanical nomenclature (Saint Louis code), regnum vegetabile 138, electronic version. Online. W. Greuter, J. Mcneill, F. R. Barrie, H.-M. Burdet, V. Demoulin, T. S. Filgueiras, D. H. Nicolson, P. C. Silva, J. E. Skog, P. Trehane, N. J. Turland, D. L. Hawksworth, eds. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany.





Alphabetical Listing of APHIS Regulated Plant Pests




Aecidium hydrangeae-paniculatae;
Alternate State (Teleomorph):
Puccinia glyceriae


Geographic Distribution: Asia (Japan, Korea).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Heteroecious rust (Fig. 1).


 

Fig. 1. Aecidium hydrangeae-paniculatae, teleomorph Puccinia glyceriae (left) aeciospores and (right) teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Aecial host Hydrangea spp. (Hydrangeaceae); telial and uredinial host Glyceria spp. (Poaceae). [* see Erratum].

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Aecidium hydrangeae-paniculatae Dietel 1903
Alternate State (Teleomorph): Puccinia glyceriae S. Ito 1909


Notes: Puccinia glyceriae was formerly considered a taxonomic synonym of Puccinia recondita Roberge ex Desm. but is now regarded as a distinct species (Hiratsuka et al. 1992).


Supporting Literature:

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K. 1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.

Okane, I., and Kakishima, M. 1991. Puccinia glyceriae and its anamorph, Aecidium hydrangeae-paniculatae. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Jpn. 32:135-139.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Aecidium hydrangeae-paniculatae




Aecidium mori


Geographic Distribution: Asia.

Substrate: Leaves, petioles, branches, buds.

Disease Note: Rust. Only the aecial state is known (Fig. 2). The aeciospores are able to reinfect the host and therefore function as a uredinial state.


 

Fig. 2. Aecidium mori aecia (photo credit J. Hernandez).

 

Host Range: Broussonetia spp. and Morus spp. (mulberry, Moraceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Aecidium mori (Barclay) Barclay 1891

Caeoma mori Barclay 1890

Peridiopsora mori (Barclay) K.V. Prasad, B.R.D. Yadav & Sullia 1993

Uredo mori (Barclay) Sacc. 1891


Notes: This name was originally published as Aecidium mori Barclay n. sp. (i.e., as a new species), but this taxon was later determined by Barclay to be identical to the previously described Caeoma mori Barclay. Barclay broadened the species concept to include a fungus on Ficus palmata, which was subsequently referred to Uredo fici Cast. by Sydow in 1907 (erroneously cited as (Barclay) Syd. 1907). The new combination Peridiopsora mori (Barclay) K.V. Prasad et al. 1993 has not been widely adopted by other authors. Although Prasad et al. (1993) list Cerotelium fici (Cast.) Arthur as a taxonomic synonym (host Ficus spp.), this is generally considered to be a distinct species.


Supporting Literature:

Mordue, J. E. M. 1991. Aecidium mori. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 1031:1-2.

Prasad, K., Dayakar Yadav, B. R., and Sullia, S. B. 1993. Taxonomic status of rust on mulberry in India. Curr. Sci. 65:424-426.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Aecidium mori




Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae
Note:
Listed by APHIS as Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae;
Alternate State (Teleomorph):
Phacidium coniferarum


Geographic Distribution: Native to Europe and North America (NE and NW USA), introduced into New Zealand (Punithalingam 1976). Reported in the USA by Gilman (1949), Gross and Weidensaul (1967), Hahn (1957a, b), Houston (1969), Shaw (1973), and Wicker (1965).

Substrate: Living and dead branches, stems, leaves.

Disease Note: Blue sap-stain, dieback and canker.

Host Range: Multiple genera of Pinaceae, also Sequoia gigantea (Cupressaceae).

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae (M. Wilson) Nag Raj 1993

Phomopsis pseudotsugae M. Wilson 1920

Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae (M. Wilson) G.G. Hahn 1957


= Ligniella pinicola Naumov 1926

    ≡ Discula pinicola (Naumov) Petr. 1928

= Discula pinicola var. mammosa Lagerb., G. Lundb. & Melin 1928

    Variant spelling Discula pinicola var. mamosa Lagerb., G. Lundb.
    & Melin 1928

= Phomopsis strobi Syd. 1922 Note: Listed as a taxonomic synonym
    by Hahn (1957a) and Smerlis (1962) but not by Nag Raj (1993).


Notes: DiCosmo (1984) argued that this anamorph belonged in Apostrasseria, but did not make the combination.


Alternate State (Teleomorph): Phacidium coniferarum (Hahn) DiCosmo, Nag Raj & Kendr. 1983

Phacidiella coniferarum Hahn 1957

Potebniamyces coniferarum (Hahn) Smerlis 1962


?= Phacidium pulverulentum J.C. Schmidt:Fr. 1817 Note: Sanctioned by Fries 1823. If accepted as synonymous, this name has priority and should be the accepted name for this fungus.


[Pseudophacidium decorticans Rehm 1885] Note: Invalid name.


Notes: Di Cosmo et al. (1984, 1983) list Phacidium pulverulentum Schmidt:Fr. 1817 as a taxonomic synonym, acknowledging that it may be the earliest valid name for this fungus. The authors rejected the use of this name due to the ambiguity of the diagnosis and the lack of authentic or type material.


Supporting Literature:

DiCosmo, F., Nag Raj, T. R., and Kendrick, B. 1983. Prodromus for a revision of the Phacidiaceae and related anamorphs. Can. J. Bot. 61:31-44.

DiCosmo, F., Nag Raj, T. R., and Kendrick, W. B. 1984. A revision of the Phacidiaceae and related anamorphs. Mycotaxon 21:1-234.

Gilman, J. C. 1949. Second supplementary list of parasitic fungi from Iowa. Iowa State J. Sci. 23:261-272.

Gross, H. L., and Weidensaul, T. C. 1967. Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae associated with bleeding cankers on hemlock. Plant Dis. Rep. 51:807-808.

Hahn, G. G. 1957. A new species of Phacidiella causing the so-called Phomopsis disease of conifers. Mycologia 49:226-239.

Hahn, G. G. 1957. Phacidiopycnis (Phomopsis) canker and dieback of conifers. Plant Dis. Rep. 41:623-633.

Houston, D. R. 1969. Basal canker of white pine. For. Sci. 15:66-83.

Nag Raj, T. R. 1993. Coelomycetous Anamorphs with Appendage-Bearing Conidia. Mycologue Publ., Waterloo, Ontario.

Punithalingam, E., and Gibson, I. A. S. 1976. Potebniamyces coniferarum. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 517:1-2.

Shaw, C. G. 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest - I. Hosts. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 765:1-121.

Smerlis, E. 1962. Taxonomy and morphology ofPotebniamyces balsamicola sp. nov. associated with a twig and branch blight of balsam fir in Quebec. Can. J. Bot. 40:351-359.

Wicker, E. F. 1965. A Phomopsis canker on western larch. Plant Dis. Rep. 49:102-105.




Beauveria spp.


Note: All species of Beauveria occur on insects. Some species are utilized as biological control agents. While their entry into the country could have ecological consequences, members of this genus are unlikely to act as plant pests. It seems inappropriate to include this genus on the Regulated Plant Pest List.


Fungal Order: Hypocreales




Ceratocystis fimbriata


Geographic Distribution: North America, South America, Caribbean, Pacific Islands, Asia, Africa (South Africa, Congo), Australia, New Zealand. Numerous reports exist of occurrence in the USA on Ipomoea batatas, including Alfieri et al. (1984), French (1989), Raabe et al. (1981), and Shaw (1973).

Substrate: Woody branches and stems, roots, leaves, tubers.

Disease Note: The American Phytopathological Society (APS) common name is coffee canker, also known as black rot of sweetpotato, mouldy rot of rubber, trunk and branch canker of other fruit and nut trees, canker stain of forest trees, canker and wilt of pimento.

Host Range: Principal host: Ipomoea batatas (sweetpotato, Convolvulaceae). Additional hosts in multiple plant families; some host specialization exists among strains. The fungi on Theobroma cacao (cacao) and Platanus spp. (sycamore) are now considered distinct species (Engelbrecht & Harrington 2005).

Fungal Order: Microascales


Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halst. 1890

Ceratostomella fimbriata (Ellis & Halst.) J.A. Elliott 1923

Endoconidiophora fimbriata (Ellis & Halst.) R.W. Davidson 1935

Ophiostoma fimbriatum (Ellis & Halst.) Nannf. 1934

Sphaeronaema fimbriatum (Ellis & Halst.) Sacc. 1892


= Rostrella coffeae Zimm. 1900

    ≡ Ophiostoma coffeae (Zimm.) Arx 1952


Notes: Engelbrecht & Harrington (2005) have limited the species concept of C. fimbriata to exclude the pathogen of cacao (=Ceratocystis cacaofunesta Engelb. & T.C. Harr. 2005) and of sycamore (Platanus spp., = Ceratocystis platani (Walter) Engelb. & T.C. Harr. 2005).


Supporting Literature:

Alfieri, S. A., Jr., Langdon, K. R., Wehlburg, C., and Kimbrough, J. W. 1984. Index of Plant Diseases in Florida (Revised). Fla. Dep. Agric. Consum. Serv. Div. Plant Ind. Bull. 11:1-389.

Engelbrecht, C. J. B., and Harrington, T. C. 2005. Intersterility, morphology and taxonomy of Ceratocystis fimbriata on sweetpotato, cacao and sycamore. Mycologia 97:57-69.

French, A. M. 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

Morgan-Jones, G. 1967. Ceratocystis fimbriata. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 141:1-2.

Raabe, R. D., Conners, I. L., and Martinez, A. P. 1981. Checklist of plant diseases in Hawaii. Coll. of Trop. Agric. and Human Resourc., Univ. of Hawaii. Info. Text Series No. 22.

Shaw, C. G. 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest - I. Hosts. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 765:1-121.




Cercospora batatas: See Pseudocercospora timorensis




Chrysomyxa abietis


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Substrate: Foliage.

Disease Note: Autoecious rust; needle cast.

Host Range: Picea spp. (Pinaceae), including Picea abies (L.) H. Karst (reported as Pinus abies L.).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Chrysomyxa abietis (Wallr.) Unger 1840

Blennoria abietis Wallr. 1834


Notes: This is the type species of the genus Chrysomyxa Unger 1840.


Supporting Literature:

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K. 1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.

Mordue, J. E. M., and Gibson, I. A. S. 1978. Chrysomyxa abietis. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 576:1-2.




Chrysomyxa himalensis


Geographic Distribution: Asia.

Substrate: Foliage; leaves and leaf petioles, needles.

Disease Note: Witches’ broom rust. Demi-cyclic (Cummins & Hiratsuka 2003).

Host Range: Telial host: Rhododendron spp. (Ericaceae); possible aecial host Picea smithiana (Pinaceae) (see Spaulding 1961, but also Vattiprolu & Agarwal 2002).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Chrysomyxa himalensis Barclay 1890

    Variant spelling Chrysomyxa himalense Barclay 1890

Melampsoropsis himalensis (Barclay) Vatt. & D.K. Agarwal 2002

Stilbechrysomyxa himalensis (Barclay) M.M. Chen 1984 (as 'himalense')


Notes: Chen transferred this fungus to the new genus Stilbechrysomyxa, but Cummins & Hiratsuka (2003) argue that further confirmation of placement in this segregate genus is required. Spaulding (1961) reported that the potential aecial host Picea smithiana could be infected through artificial inoculation, but Vattiprolu & Agarwal (2002) list the aecial and pycnial state as unknown.


Supporting Literature:

Cummins, G. B., and Hiratsuka, Y. 2003. Illustrated Genera of Rust Fungi, 3rd. Ed. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

Spaulding, P. 1961. Foreign Diseases of Forest Trees of the World. USDA Agric. Handb. 197.

Vattiprolu, P. K., and Agarwal, D. K. 2002. Melampsoropsis himalense: A new record from India. Indian Phytopathol. 55:351-354.




Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri:
See Chrysomyxa rhododendri




Chrysomyxa rhododendri
Note:
Listed by APHIS as Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri;
Alternate State (Anamorph): Uredo rhododendri


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia. Introduced to New Zealand and Australia. In North America only the telial state is known; the aecial state has not been observed. It has been reported in the USA by Eglitis et al. (1966), French (1989), Gould et al. (1955), and Grand (1985).

Substrate: Leaves, petioles, fruit pedicels, twigs.

Disease Note: The APS common name is Chrysomyxa leaf rust.

Host Range: Aecial host: Picea spp. (Pinaceae). The aecial state has not been observed in North America. Telial host: Rhododendron spp. (Ericaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Chrysomyxa rhododendri de Bary 1879

≡ [Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri (De Bary) Savile 1955] non (DC.) Savile 1950.


= Melampsora rhododendri Thüm. 1880 Note: No record of this name could be found, except for the citation by Hiratsuka 1992; possibly an invalid herbarium name.


Alternate State (Anamorph):
Uredo rhododendri DC. 1815

Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri (DC.) Savile 1950 Note: No description of teleomorph. Anamorph in a teleomorphic genus (ICBN Art. 59.6).

Melampsoropsis rhododendri (DC.) Arthur 1906 Note: Anamorph in a teleomorphic genus (ICBN Art. 59.6).


= Caeoma rhododendri Link 1825

Caeoma piceatum Link 1825 is a synonym pro parte.


Notes: Savile (1950) published the new combination Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri based on Uredo rhododendri DC 1815 (an anamorph), without description of the teleomorphic state. Savile (1955) later considered this to be an invalid combination (nom. nud.), but the name was validly published based on Uredo rhododendri DC. 1815. The 1950 name must be considered an anamorphic name in a teleomorphic genus, and the teleomorphic 1955 name is an illegitimate later homonym, based on the current Code (Art. 59.5 N.1, Art. 59.6 ex. 7). Similarly, Schröter (1878) published the combination Coleosporium rhododendri (DC) Schröt. based on the anamorph, mentioning the teleomorph but not describing it.


Supporting Literature:

Crane, P. E. 2001. Morphology, taxonomy, and nomenclature of the Chrysomyxa ledi complex and related rust fungi on spruce and Ericaceae in North America and Europe. Can. J. Bot. 79:957-982.

Eglitis, M., Gould, C. J., and Johnson, F. 1966. Fungi found on Ericaceae in the Pacific coastal area. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 675:1-21.

French, A. M. 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

Gaumann, E. 1959. Die rostpilze mitteleuropas mit besonderer berucksichtigung der Schweiz. Beitr. Kryptogamenflora Schweiz 12:1-1407.

Gould, C. J., Eglitis, M., and Doughty, C. C. 1955. European Rhododendron rust (Chrysomyxa ledi var. rhododendri) in the United States. Plant Dis. Rep. 39:781-782.

Grand, L. F., ed. 1985. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. N. C. Agric. Res. Serv. Tech. Bull. 240:1-157.

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K.1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.

Savile, D. B. O. 1950. North American species of Chrysomyxa. Canad. J. Res., Sect. C 28:318-330.

Savile, D. B. O. 1955. Chrysomyxa in North America - additions and corrections. Can. J. Bot. 33:487-496.




Crinipellis perniciosa var. perniciosa: See Moniliophthora perniciosa





Cronartium flaccidum; Alternate State (Anamorph): Peridermium cornui


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia.

Substrate: Stems.

Disease Note: Scotch pine blister rust; resin canker. Heteroecious rust. Infection through foliage or stem wounds.

Host Range: Aecial host: Pinus spp.; telial hosts: Asclepiadaceae, Paeoniaceae, Scrophulariaceae.

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. & Schwein.) G. Winter 1880 [1881]

Sphaeria flaccida Alb. & Schwein. 1805


= Aecidium asclepiadeum Wallr. 1833 Note: This is a teleomorph
    described in an anamorphic genus (Art. 59.6).

= Erineum asclepiadeum Willd. 1806

    ≡ Cronartium asclepiadeum (Willd.) Fr. 1815

= Cronartium nemesiae Vestergr. 1896

    ≡ Cronartium nemesiae var. nemesiae Vestergr. 1896

= Cronartium paeoniae Castagne 1845

= Cronartium pedicularis (A. Dietr.) Lindr. 1900

= Cronartium peridermii-pini Liro 1907

= Cronartium vincetoxici Duby 1831 [1830] Note: Superfluous name.


Notes: This is the type species of the genus Cronartium. Hantula et al. (2002) showed that Cronartium flaccidum and Endocronartium pini (DC.:Pers.) Y. Hirats. 1969 are closely related despite displaying heteroecious and autoecious life cycles, respectively. We retain the distinction for now, following Hiratsuka (1969) and Hiratsuka (1992).


Alternate State (Anamorph): Peridermium cornui Rostr. ex Kleb. 1890


Notes: This name was originally used by Rostrum (1889) but with no description, therefore Peridermium cornui Rostr. 1889 is an invalid name, nom. nud. Klebahn (1890) validated the name, describing this species as the anamorph of the heteroecious rust Cronartium flaccidum (as Cronartium asclepiadeum). Klebahn (1890) amended the concept of Endocronartium pini (as Peridermium pini) to include only the autoecious pine rust.


Supporting Literature:

Cummins, G. B., and Hiratsuka, Y. 2003. Illustrated Genera of Rust Fungi, 3rd Ed. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

Hantula, J., Kasanen, R., Kaitera, J., and Moricca, S. 2002. Analysis of genetic variation suggests that pine rusts Cronartium flaccidum and Peridermium pini belong to the same species. Mycol. Res. 106:203-209.

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K. 1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.

Hiratsuka, Y. 1969. Endocronartium, a new genus for autoecious pine stem rusts. Can. J. Bot. 47:1493-1495.

Klebahn, H. 1890. Neue Untersuchungen und Beobachtungen über die Blasenroste der Kiefern. Hedwigia 29:27-35.

Mordue, J. E. M., and Gibson, I. A. S. 1978. Cronartium flaccidum. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 580:1-2.

Rostrup, 1889. Vidensk. Meddel. fra den naturh. Foren. p. 238-252.




Diaporthe mali Bres. 1902


Geographic Distribution: Europe (Austria, type).

Substrate: Branches.

Host Range: Pyrus malus (as Malus domestica) (Rosaceae, type).

Fungal Order: Diaporthales


Notes: Not Diaporthe mali Miura 1915 = Diaporthe eres (see below). Originally published as Diaporthe (Chorostate) mali, this fungus has received little attention; it was listed by Wehmeyer (1933) under "species not seen." The illegitimate later homonym Diaporthe mali Miura 1915 non Bres. 1902 has received some study (e.g. C.M.I. 1990), which may be a source of confusion in the plant pathology literature.


Supporting Literature:

C. M. I. 1990. Diaporthe mali. C.M.I. Map 618:1-2.

Wehmeyer, L. E. 1933. The genus Diaporthe Nitschke and its segregates. Univ. Michigan Stud., Sci. Ser. 9:1-349.




Diaporthe mali Miura 1915; see Diaporthe eres Nitschke 1870

(Not an APHIS regulated plant pest. Listed for comparison with Diaporthe mali Bres.).


Diaporthe eres; Alternate State (Anamorph): Phomopsis oblonga


Geographic Distribution: Asia, Europe, North America, Africa (Zambia, Zimbabwe)

Substrate: Leaves, petioles, twigs, branches, stems, flowers, fruits.

Disease Note: Canker, fruit rot, leaf spot.

Host Range: Multiple plant families.

Fungal Order: Diaporthales


Diaporthe eres Nitschke 1870

[= Diaporthe mali Miura 1915 - illegitimate later homonym] Note: Not Diaporthe mali Bres. 1902.


Alternate State (Anamorph):

Phomopsis oblonga (Desm.) Traverso 1906

Phoma oblonga Desm. 1853


Notes: Wehmeyer (1933) provided an extensive list of synonyms, which are not listed here. Wehmeyer based his species concept on morphology rather than host distinction, but he observed that Diaporthe eres might be regarded as a species complex. Diaporthe eres and the synonymous name Diaporthe mali Miura (see above) occur throughout North America.


Supporting Literature:

C.M.I. 1990. Diaporthe mali. C.M.I. Map 618:1-2.

Kanematsu, S., Kobayashi, T. and Kudo, A. 1999. Conidial morphology, pathogenicity and culture characteristics of Phomopsis isolates from peach, Japanese pear and apple in Japan. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn. 65:264-273.

Kanematsu, S., Minaka, N., Kobayashi, T., Kudo, A. and Ohtsu, Y. 2000. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer regions and comparison of fertility in Phomopsis isolates from fruit trees. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 66:191-201.

Tanaka, T. 1919. New Japanese fungi notes and translations VII. Mycologia 11:148-154.

Wehmeyer, L. E. 1933. The genus Diaporthe Nitschke and its segregates. Univ. Mich. Stud., Sci. Ser. 9:1-349.




Elsinoë australis;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Sphaceloma australis


Geographic Distribution: South America.

Substrate: Fruits.

Disease Note: The APS common name is sweet orange scab.

Host Range: Citrus spp., Fortunella spp. (Rutaceae).

Fungal Order: Myriangiales


Elsinoë australis Bitanc. & Jenkins 1936

    Variant spelling Elsinoe australis Bitanc. & Jenk. 1936


Alternate State (Anamorph):

Sphaceloma australis Bitanc. & Jenk. 1936

Sphaceloma fawcettii var. viscosa Jenk. 1933


Note: When the teleomorph was discovered, Bitanc. & Jenkins (1936) provided the new name Sphaceloma australis for the anamorph at the species rank, replacing the varietal name Sphaceloma fawcettii var. viscosa.


Supporting Literature:

Hyun, J. -W., Timmer, L. W., Lee, S. C., Yun, S. -H., Ko, S. -W., and Kim, K. S. 2001. Pathological characterization and molecular analysis of Elsinoe isolates causing scab diseases of citrus in Jeju Island in Korea. Plant Dis. 85:1013-1017.

Sivanesan, A., and Critchett, C. 1974. Elsinoe australis. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 440:1-2.

Tan, M. K., Timmer, L. W., Broadbent, P., Priest, M., and Cain, P. 1996. Differentiation by molecular analysis of Elsinoe spp. causing scab diseases of citrus and its epidemiological implications. Phytopathology 86:1039-1044.




Elsinoë batatas;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Sphaceloma batatas


Geographic Distribution: Australia, Asia, Pacific Islands, Caribbean (Puerto Rico), South America (Brazil). It is absent from the mainland of the USA, but present in Hawaii (McCain and Trujillo 1967, Raabe et al. 1981).

Substrate: Leaves, stems.

Disease Note: The APS common name is leaf and stem scab.

Host Range: Ipomoea batatas (sweetpotato, Convolvulaceae).

Fungal Order: Myriangiales


Elsinoë batatas Viégas & Jenkins 1943


Alternate State (Anamorph):

Sphaceloma batatas Sawada 1931 Note: Published as "batatae"


Supporting Literature:

McCain, A. H., and Trujillo, E. E. 1967. Plant diseases previously unreported from Hawaii. Plant Dis. Rep. 51:1051-1053.

Raabe, R. D., Conners, I. L., and Martinez, A. P. 1981. Checklist of plant diseases in Hawaii. Coll. of Trop. Agric. and Human Resourc., Univ. of Hawaii. Info. Text Series No. 22.

Sivanesan, A., and Hyde, K. D. 1992. Elsinoë batatas. I.M.I. Descr. 1124:1-2.




Entomophthora spp.


Note: All species occur on insects. Some species are utilized as biological control agents. While their entry into the country could have ecological consequences, members of this genus are unlikely to act as plant pests. It seems inappropriate to include this genus on the Regulated Plant Pest List.


Fungal Order: Entomophthorales




Entyloma oryzae


Geographic Distribution: Asia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, South America, Africa, Europe (France), North America (Mexico; USA: LA, TX, AR). Reported in the USA by Zundel (1953) and in an anonymous report (1960).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: The APS common name is leaf smut.

Host Range: Oryza sativa (rice, Poaceae).

Fungal Order: Entylomatales


Entyloma oryzae Syd. & P. Syd. 1914


Supporting Literature:

Anonymous 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. USDA Agric. Handb. 165:1-531.

Mulder, J. L., and Holliday, P. 1971. Entyloma oryzae. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 296:1-2.

Zundel, G. L. 1953. The Ustilaginales of the World. Contr. Dep. Bot. Pa. State Coll. School Agric. 176:1-410.




Fusarium fuliginosporum


Geographic Distribution: Europe (Italy).

Substrate: Roots.

Disease Note: Seedling rot.

Host Range: Cedrus deodara (Deodar cedar, Pinaceae).

Fungal Order: Hypocreales


Fusarium fuliginosporum Sibilia 1925


Supporting Literature:

Spaulding, P. 1961. Foreign Diseases of Forest Trees of the World. USDA Agric. Handb. 197.




Guignardia pyricola


Geographic Distribution: Asia.

Substrate: Branches, shoots, leaves, fruits.

Disease Note: The APS common name is apple ring rot and canker, also known as wart bark, blister canker, Physalospora canker. This fungus is morphologically indistinguishable from Botryosphaeria dothidea but causes different disease symptoms.

Host Range: Principal host: Pyrus pyrifolia. Additional hosts: Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Chaenomeles japonica (Rosaceae).


Guignardia pyricola (Nose) W. Yamam. 1961

Physalospora pyricola Nose 1933

    Variant spelling Physalospora piricola Nose 1933 Note: The
    original spelling has been corrected for the host genus Pyrus
    (Art. 60.12).

[≡Botryosphaeria berengeriana f. sp. pyricola (Nose) Kogan. & Sakuma 1984] nom. inval. Note: The basionym reference was given with a page range, not the exact page, therefore this name is not validly published (Art. 33.3). This constitutes an unconventional use of forma specialis (f. sp.) for a fungus from multiple plant host genera (Smith 1992).


Notes: The status of this fungus is controversial. It is clear that Guignardia pyricola belongs in the genus Botryosphaeria, but no valid name has been published. The only name for this fungus in Botryosphaeria is Botryosphaeria berengeriana f. sp. pyricola, but the forma specialis has no nomenclatural status (Art. 4 Note 3), and the basionym citation was incorrect making B. berengeriana f. sp. pyricola an invalid name. We have no other option than to list this taxon under the name Guignardia pyricola until its status has been resolved. Some authors consider it a taxonomic synonym of Botryosphaeria dothidea; it is morphologically identical to Botryosphaeria dothidea but causes distinct disease symptoms (Smith et al. 1992). The anamorph is an unnamed Fusicoccum. If, after reexamination, this fungus is recognized as a distinct taxon, a new combination in the genus Botryosphaeria should be published.


Supporting Literature:

Koganezawa, H. and Sakuma, T. 1984. Causal fungi of apple fruit rot. Bull. Fruit Tree Res. Sta. Jpn., Series C 11:49-62.

Slippers, B., Crous, P. W., Denman, S., Coutinho, T. A., Wingfield, B. D., and Wingfield, M. J. 2004. Combined multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several species previously identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea. Mycologia 96:83-101.

Smith, I. M., McNamara, D. G., Scott, P. R., and Harris, K. M. 1993. Quarantine Pests for Europe. EPPO and CABI Publish., Wallingford, UK.




Gymnosporangium asiaticum;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Roestelia koreensis


Geographic Distribution: Asia. Introduced into North America (USA: WA, OR, CA, WI, CT,) and Europe (UK) on imported stock (see Hiratsuka et al. 1992). Reported in the USA by Anon. (1960), Blasdale (1919), Hotson (1925), French (1987, 1989), Greene (1968), and Shaw (1973).

Substrate: Aecial host: leaves. Telial host: leaves and stems.

Disease Note: Heteroecious rust.

Host Range: Aecial host: Pyrus spp. and other Rosaceae. Telial host: Juniperus spp. (Cupressaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Gymnosporangium asiaticum Miyabe ex G. Yamada 1904

= Gymnosporangium chinense Long 1914

= Gymnosporangium haraeanum Syd. & P. Syd. 1912

= Gymnosporangium koreaense H. Jacks. 1916 (as "koreaënsis")


[= Gymnosporangium japonicum Shirai 1900 - illegitimate later homonym] Note: Not P. Syd. 1899.

[Gymnosporangium asiaticum var. major author and publication year unknown] Note: Probably an invalid herbarium name.


Notes: The invalid name (nom. nud.) Gymnosporangium asiaticum Miyabe 1903 was validated in 1904 by G. Yamada.


Alternate State (Anamorph): Roestelia koreensis Henn. 1889

= Gymnosporangium spiniferum Syd. & P. Syd. 1912 Note: The description is from the aecial host, therefore this is an anamorph in a teleomorphic genus (ICBN Art. 59.6).


Notes: Gymnosporangium japonicum P. Syd. not Shirai 1900 was erroneously considered to be the telial state of this fungus; see Jackson H.S. J. Agr. Res. 5: 1003-1011, 1916.


Supporting Literature:

Anonymous. 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. USDA Agric. Handb. 165:1-531.

Blasdale, W. C. 1919. A preliminary list of the Uredinales of California. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 7:101-157.

French, A. M. 1987. California plant disease host index. Part 1: Fruit and nuts. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

French, A. M. 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

Greene, H. C. 1968. Notes on Wisconsin parasitic fungi. XXXIII. Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Ars. Lett. 56:263-280.

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K.1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.

Hotson, J. W. 1925. Preliminary list of the Uredinales of Washington. Publ. Puget Sound Biolog. Sta. 4:273-391.

Laundon, G. 1977. Gymnosporangium asiaticum. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 541:1.

Shaw, C. G. 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest - I. Hosts. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 765:1-121.




Hemileia vastatrix


Geographic Distribution: Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, North America (Mexico), Papua New Guinea. Not reported in the USA.

Substrate: Leaves. Rarely on berries and young shoots. Seed-borne.

Disease Note: The APS common name is orange or leaf rust (Fig. 3). This rust is autoecious. The most serious disease of coffee of worldwide significance (Laundon 1964).


 

Fig. 3. Hemileia vastatrix (left) telia and (right) urediniospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Principal host: Coffea spp. (coffee). Additional hosts: Gardenia spp. (Rubiaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Broome 1869


Supporting Literature:

Laundon, G. F., and Waterston, J. M. 1964. Hemileia vastatrix. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 1:1-2.


Click on the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Hemileia vastatrix




Lachnellula willkommii


Geographic Distribution: Native to Asia, established in Europe. Eradication efforts in North America (Canada; USA: MA, ME) have been mostly successful but occasional local outbreaks occur (Buczacki 1975,CPC website). Reported in the USA by Miller-Weeks and Stark (1983), Ostaff (1985), and in an anonymous report (1960).

Substrate: Bark, branches and stems.

Disease Note: Canker, girdling dieback. Not epidemic.

Host Range: Larix spp., Pseudolarix spp. (Pinaceae). According to Buczacki (1975) reports on other conifers are almost certainly erroneous.

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Lachnellula willkommii (R. Hartig) Dennis 1962

Peziza willkommii Hartig 1874

    Variant spelling Peziza willkomii Hartig 1874. Note: Probable
    transcription error.


Dasyscyphus willkommii (R. Hartig) Rehm 1881. Note: Originally published as "Dasyscypha"


Helotium willkommii (Hartig) Wettst. 1887

Lachnella willkommii (Hartig) Seaver 1951

Trichoscypha willkommii (Hartig) Boud. 1907

Trichoscyphella willkommii (R. Hartig) Nannf. 1932


Notes: Buczacki (1975) listed this fungus under the name Trichoscyphella willkommii, stating that Lachnellula willkommii was based on questionable precepts and had not gained wide acceptance. The name Lachnellula willkommii has been accepted by most recent authors and is used here as the currently accepted name.


Supporting Literature:

Anonymous. 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. USDA Agric. Handb. 165:1-531.

Buczacki, S. T. 1975. Trichoscyphella willkommii. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 450:1-2.

Miller-Weeks, M., and Stark, D. 1983. European larch canker in Maine. Plant Dis. 67:448.

Ostaff, D. P. 1985. Age distribution of european larch canker in New Brunswick. Plant Dis. 69:796-798.




Melanomma glumarum


Geographic Distribution: Asia.

Substrate: Glumes, culms.

Disease Note: Leaf spot.

Host Range: Oryza sativa (Poaceae).

Fungal Order: Pleosporales


Melanomma glumarum I. Miyake 1910


[Melanomma glumarum f. africanum Luc 1953] Note: Invalid name, no Latin description (ICBN Art. 36.1).


Supporting Literature:

Miyake, I. 1910. Pilze Reispflanze Japan. J. Coll. Agric. Tokyo II: 242, table XIII, f. 1-3 (not seen).

Tai, F. L. 1979. Sylloge Fungorum Sinicorum. Sci. Press, Acad. Sin., Beijing, China.

Watson, A. J. 1971. Foreign bacterial and fungus diseases of food, forage, and fiber crops. USDA Agric. Handb. 418.




Monilinia fructigena and Related Brown Fruit Rots.


Monilinia fructigena is one of four related fungi that infect members of the Rosaceae, causing brown fruit rots of considerable economic importance. There has been some taxonomic confusion between the four species Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa, and Monilia polystroma Leeuwen 2002. The latter species was described based solely on the anamorph. Monilinia fructigena is widespread in Europe, rarely infects blossoms and twigs, and occurs primarily on apples (Malus spp.), pears (Pyrus spp.), and other pome fruit trees, although it is also found on Prunus spp. The brown fruit rot of Japan, previously considered to be M. fructigena, is a distinct species based on recent morphological and molecular studies, and has been named Monilia polystroma Leeuwen 2002. Monilinia fructicola is widespread in North America, commonly infects blossoms and twigs in addition to fruits, and occurs primarily on Prunus spp., but also on apples, pears, and other pome fruits in the Rosaceae. Monilinia laxa co-occurs with the other brown rot fungi, primarily in Europe and the Pacific Northwest of North America. M. laxa resembles M. fructicola in infecting blossoms and twigs in addition to fruits, but has a host range similar to M. fructigena, occurring more frequently on Prunus spp. but also on other members of the Rosaceae (see Batra 1991 for more details).


Monilinia fructigena;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Monilia fructigena


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia (China), South America (Uruguay, Brazil). American literature references to Monilia fructigena previous to 1928 probably refer to Monilia fructicola Batra 1991. Reports of Monilia fructigena in Japan probably refer to Monilia polystroma Leeuwen 2002.

Substrate: Primarily fruits, rarely blossoms and twigs.

Disease Note: The APS common name is brown rot, blossom blight, and fruit rot. Overwinters in mummified fruits.

Host Range: Malus spp., Pyrus spp., Prunus spp. and other Rosaceae, also reported on Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae).

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Monilinia fructigena Honey ex Whetzel 1946

[≡Sclerotinia fructigena Aderh. & Ruhland 1905 - illegitimate later homonym]. Note: Not (Pers.:Fr.) J. Schröt. 1893


Alternate State (Anamorph):

Monilia fructigena Pers.:Fr. 1801

Acrosporium fructigenum (Pers.) Pers. 1822

Oospora fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) Wallr. 1833

Sclerotinia fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) J. Schröt. 1893

[≡Stromatinia fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) Boud. 1907] Illegitimate later homonym. Not Ritz. Bos 1904


?= Torula fructigena Pers. 1796

= Oidium fructigenum Kunze & J.C. Schmidt 1817

= Oospora candida Wallr. 1833

= Oidium wallrothii Thüm. 1875


Note: The earliest potential description of the anamorph (conidial state) of this fungus was made by Persoon in 1796, under the name Torula fructigena. Harrison (1933) found Persoon’s 1796 description insufficient to distinguish among the other Monilinia spp. on Rosaceae (Batra 1991). In 1801 Persoon described the conidial state of the fungus as Monilia fructigena (subsequently sanctioned by Fries), later transferring it to the genus Acrosporium as Acrosporium fructigenum (Pers.) Pers. 1822. Wallroth placed it in the genus Oospora as Oospora fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) Wallr. 1833. Boudier transferred it into the genus Stromatinia as Stromatinia fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) Boud. 1907, thereby creating an illegitimate later homonym of Stromatinia fructigena Ritz. Bos 1904 (=Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey 1928). In addition, Oospora candida Wallr. 1833, Oidium fructigenum Kunze & J.C. Schmidt 1817, and Oidium wallrothii Thüm. 1875 are considered to be taxonomic synonyms (Batra 1991).


In 1893, Schröter transferred Persoon’s anamorphic fungus to the holomorphic genus Sclerotinia, without a description of the teleomorphic state, creating the anamorphic name Sclerotinia fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) J. Schröt. 1893. Aderhold & Ruhland (1905) added a description of the teleomorph to the name, thereby creating an illegitimate later homonym, Sclerotinia fructigena Aderh. & Ruhland 1905 (often cited as (Pers.) Aderh. & Ruhland 1905) (see Kohn 1979 p. 408-409 for more detail).


In 1936, Honey used the combination Monilinia fructigena, without description or reference to a description (invalid name, violating ICBN Art. 41.3). In 1946, Whetzel was the first to validly publish the combination, cited as Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey 1936, with reference to the description of the teleomorph provided by Aderhold & Ruhland for Sclerotinia fructigena Aderh. & Ruhland 1905. Because S. fructigena Aderh. & Ruhland 1905 is an illegitimate later homonym of S. fructigena (Pers.:Pers.) Schröt. 1893, the combination is properly cited as Monilinia fructigena Honey ex Whetzel 1946 (see ICBN Art. 58). This is the currently accepted holomorphic name for this taxon.


Supporting Literature:

Batra, L. R. 1991. World species of Monilinia (Fungi): Their ecology, biosystematics and control. Mycol. Mem. 16:1-246.

Honey, E. E. 1936. North American species of Monilinia. I. Occurrence, grouping, and life-histories. Amer. J. Bot. 23:100-106.

Kohn, L. M. 1979. A monographic revision of the genusSclerotinia. Mycotaxon 9:365-444.

Korf, R. P., and Kohn, L. M. 1979. Later starting point blues. I. Monilia fructigena. Mycotaxon 9:521-522.

Whetzel, H. H. 1945. A synopsis of the genera and species of the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of stromatic inoperculate Discomycetes. Mycologia 37:648-714.




Monilinia fructicola;
Alternate State (Anamorph): Monilia fructicola (Not an APHIS regulated plant pest. Listed for comparison with Monilinia fructigena).


Geographic Distribution: North America, South America, Asia (Japan), Australia, New Zealand.

Substrate: Blossoms, twigs, fruits.

Disease Note: Brown fruit rot, wilt, blight, canker. Overwinters in mummified fruits.

Host Range: Rosaceae, primarily Prunus spp., also Pomoideae including Malus (apple) and Pyrus (pear). Reported on Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae).

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey 1928

Ciboria fructicola G. Winter 1883

Sclerotinia fructicola (G. Winter) Rehm 1906


= Stromatinia fructigena Ritz. Bos 1904

= Sclerotinia americana Norton & Ezekiel 1924

[= Sclerotinia fructigena Norton 1902 - illegitimate later homonym]. Note: Not (Pers.:Fr.) Schröt. 1893.


Alternate State (Anamorph): Monilia fructicola Batra 1991

= Monilia cinerea f. americana Wormald 1919


Note: The teleomorph of this fungus was first described on mummified peaches from Pennsylvania as Ciboria fructicola G. Winter 1883 (Batra 1991). It was transferred to the genus Sclerotinia by Rehm (Sclerotinia fructicola (G. Winter) Rehm 1906) and to Monilinia by Honey as Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey 1928, the currently accepted name. Sclerotinia americana Norton & Ezekiel 1924 is a taxonomic synonym (Batra 1991).


In 1902, Norton observed the teleomorphic state of a Monilia sp. on Prunus fruits from Maryland and named it Sclerotinia fructigena Norton 1902, creating an illegitimate later homonym of Sclerotinia fructigena (Pers.:Fr.) J. Schröt. 1893 (anamorph of Monilinia fructigena). The existence of this homonym may have added to the confusion between Monilinia fructigena and Monilinia fructicola.


Before the American brown fruit rot was described as Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey 1928, American collections were frequently reported under the name Monilia fructigena. After 1928, the invalid name Monilia fructicola was used, despite the lack of a formal description of the anamorph (Batra 1991). In 1991 Batra provided a description of the anamorph, Monilia fructicola Batra 1991, the currently accepted name.


Further confusion was caused by the partial synonyms (syn. pro parte) Sclerotinia cinerea Matheny 1913 and Sclerotinia cinerea (Bonord.) Schröt. ex Aderh. & Ruhland 1905, illegitimate later homonyms of Sclerotinia cinerea (Bonord.) Schröt. 1893 = Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey 1945.


Supporting Literature:

Batra, L. R. 1991. World species of Monilinia (Fungi): Their ecology, biosystematics and control. Mycol. Mem. 16:1-246.

Kohn, L. M. 1979. A monographic revision of the genus Sclerotinia. Mycotaxon 9:365-444.




Monilinia laxa;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Monilia laxa (Not an APHIS regulated plant pest. Listed for comparison with Monilinia fructigena).


Geographic Distribution: North America (Pacific Northwest), South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa (South Africa).

Substrate: Blossoms, shoots, twigs, fruits.

Disease Note: The APS common name is brown rot, blossom blight, and fruit rot. Also known as a wilt and canker. Overwinters in mummified fruits.

Host Range: Rosaceae, primarily Prunus spp., also Malus spp. (apple), Pyrus spp. (pear), and other Pomoideae.

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey 1945

Sclerotinia laxa Aderh. & Ruhland 1905

Stromatinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Chifflot 1921


[= Sclerotinia cinerea Wormald 1921 - illegitimate later homonym]. Note: Not (Bonord.) Schröt. 1893


Alternate State (Anamorph):


Monilia laxa (Ehrenb.) Sacc. & Voglino 1886

Oidium laxum Ehrenb. 1818 (not Duby 1830)

Acrosporium laxum (Ehrenb.) Pers. 1822

Oospora laxa (Ehrenb.) Wallr. 1833


= Monilia cinerea Bonord. 1851

    ≡Sclerotinia cinerea (Bonord.) J. Schröt. 1893

= Sclerotinia cerasi Woronin 1895

    ≡Stromatinia cerasi (Woronin) Boud. 1907

= Monilia oregonensis Barss 1923


[Monilia laxa (Wallr.) Sacc. & Voglino 1886 ] invalid name


Note: The teleomorph of this fungus was first described as Sclerotinia laxa by Aderhold & Ruhland in 1905. Chifflot transferred it to Stromatinia (Stromatinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Chifflot 1921). Honey transferred it to Monilinia as Monilinia laxa (Aderh. & Ruhland) Honey 1945, the currently accepted name.


The nomenclature of the anamorphic state remains controversial (Batra 1991). Ehrenberg’s description of Oidium laxum Ehrenb. 1818 serves as the basionym for the currently accepted name. It is possible, however, that Persoon’s descriptions of Torula fructigena Pers. 1796, Monilia fructigena Pers.:Fr. 1801 and Acrosporium fructigenum (Pers.:Fr.) Pers. 1822 refer to the fungus currently named Monilia laxa rather than to Monilia fructigena (Batra 1991). If this were accepted to be the case, in the genus Monilia the epithet fructigena (1796) would have priority over laxum (1818) for this fungus. The brown fruit rot currently known as Monilia fructigena would also need to be renamed. Because no type specimen is available for Persoon’s fungus, it has been difficult to settle this issue. At this point, M. laxa is the currently accepted name for the conidial state of this fungus (Batra 1991).


Supporting Literature:

Batra, L. R. 1991. World species of Monilinia (Fungi): Their ecology, biosystematics and control. Mycol. Mem. 16:1-246.



Moniliophthora perniciosa
Note:
Listed by APHIS as Crinipellis perniciosa


Geographic Distribution: South America, Caribbean (Trinidad, Grenada). Also reported in Indonesia (unconfirmed).

Substrate: Buds, flowers, fruits.

Disease Note: This fungal disease may destroy up to 75% of the crop. The APS common names are currently Crinipellis pod rot and witches’ broom. The APS common names should be updated to reflect the new generic placement, and to prevent confusion with the closely related Moniliophthora pod rot (see Moniliophthora roreri).

Host Range: Theobroma spp. including Theobroma cacao (cacao), and Herrania spp. (Malvaceae, also sometimes placed in Sterculiaceae).

Fungal Order: Agaricales


Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel) Aime & Phillips-Mora 2006 [2005]

Marasmius perniciosus Stahel 1915

Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer 1943


Notes: Aime and Philips-Mora (2005) transfered this teleomorphic species to the genus Moniliophthora. The genus Moniliophthora was erected for Moniliophthora roreri, originally considered an anamorphic species. Evans (2002) later argued that Moniliophthora roreri is a teleomorphic name (see discussion under Moniliophthora roreri).


Supporting Literature:

Aime, M. C., and Phillips-Mora, W. 2005. The causal agents of witches’ broom and frosty pod rot of cocoa (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae. Mycologia 97:1012-1022.

Evans, H. C. 2002. Invasive neotropical pathogens of tree crops. Pages 83-112 in: Watling, R., J. C. Frankland, A. M. Ainsworth, S. Isaac, and C. H. Robinson. Tropical Mycology: Vol. 2, Micromycetes. CABI Publish., Cambridge, MA.

Holliday, P. 1970. Crinipellis perniciosa. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 223:1-2.


Click here for additional information: Moniliophthora perniciosa




Moniliophthora roreri


Geographic Distribution: Central America (Panama, Cuba), South America.

Substrate: Flowers, fruits.

Disease Note: The APS common name is Moniliophthora pod rot, also known as frosty pod rot, 'mancha', 'helada', watery pod rot (Fig. 4). Incorrectly referred to as Moniliosis or Monilia disease.


 

Fig. 4. Moniliophthora roreri, infected pods (photo credit M.C. Aime).

 

Host Range: Theobroma cacao (cacao), and otherTheobroma spp. (Malvaceae).

Fungal Order: Agaricales


Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans, Stalpers, Samson & Benny 1978

Monilia roreri Cif. 1933 Note: Originally classified as an ascomycete (misapplied).


[Crinipellis roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans 2002] Note: Invalid name, incomplete citation of basionym (ICBN Art. 33.3).


Notes: This species was originally classified as an ascomycete by Ciferri (1933). Evans et al. (1978) erected the new genus Moniliophthora with this fungus as its type species. According to Evans et al. (1978), no type material is extant; they have designated a neotype (a dried culture of CBS 324.75) (permissable under ICBN Art. 8.4). They originally considered it to be an anamorph; later Evans et al. (2002) argued that what had previously been considered conidiophores and conidia were, in fact, probasidia and metabasidia. Because Ciferri's protologue (1933) contained a description of what may be the teleomorphic state of this fungus, Moniliophthora roreri may be a holomorphic name (ICBN Art. 59.2). The genus Moniliophthora, with M. roreri as type species, may therefore be a holomorphic genus. See also Aime and Phillips-Mora (2005).


Supporting Literature:

Aime, M. C., and Phillips-Mora, W. 2005. The causal agents of witches’ broom and frosty pod rot of cocoa (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae. Mycologia 97:1012-1022.

Evans, H. C., Holmes, K., Phillips, W., and Wilkinson, J. M. 2002. What's in a name: Crinipellis, the final resting place for the frosty pod rot pathogen of cocoa? Mycologist 16:148-152.

Evans, H. C., Stalpers, J. A., Samson, R. A., and Benny, G. L. 1978. On the taxonomy of Monilia roreri, an important pathogen of Theobroma cacao in South America. Can. J. Bot. 56:2528-2532.

Holliday, P. 1970. Monilia roreri. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 226:1-2.


Click here for additional information: Moniliophthora roreri




Oncobasidium theobromae


Geographic Distribution: Asia, Australasia (Papua New Guinea).

Substrate: Vascular tissue (xylem) of branches and stem.

Disease Note: The APS common name is vascular streak dieback, also known as vascular wilt.

Host Range: Principal host: Theobroma cacao (cacao, Malvaceae). Additional host: Persea americana (avocado, Lauraceae). Indigenous host unknown.

Fungal Order: Ceratobasidiales


Oncobasidium theobromae P.H.B. Talbot & Keane 1971


Notes: This is the type species of the genus Oncobasidium P.H.B. Talbot & Keane 1971.


Supporting Literature:

Keane, P. J., and Prior, C. 1991. Vascular-streak dieback of cocoa. Phytopathological Papers 33. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.

Talbot, P. H. B., and Keane, P. J. 1971. Oncobasidium: a new genus of tulasnelloid fungi. Austr. J. Bot. 19:203-206.




Oospora oryzetorum Sacc. 1916 Note: Not a fungus.


Notes: This is not a rice pathogen, and has never been reported except for the original description. Specimens from the original collection contain only starch granules, which were apparently mistakenly interpreted as fungal structures. This name should not be used (Gams and Rossman 2005).


Supporting Literature:

Gams, W., and Rossman, A. Y. 2005. What is Oospora oryzetorum? Mycotaxon 92:339-340.




Peronosclerospora maydis


Geographic Distribution: Australia, Asia, South America (Venezuela, Argentina). Reports in Africa are unreliable (EPPO notes, CPC website).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: The APS common name is Java downy mildew.

Host Range: Principal host: Zea mays (corn). Additional hosts: other Poaceae.

Fungal Order: Peronosporales


Peronosclerospora maydis (Racib.) C.G. Shaw 1978

Peronospora maydis Racib. 1897

Sclerospora maydis (Racib.) E.J. Butler 1913 Note: Not Reinking 1918.

= Sclerospora javanica Palm 1918


Supporting Literature:

Riethmuller, A., Voglmayr, H., Goker, M., Wiess, M. , and Oberwinkler, F. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the downy mildews (Peronosporales) and related groups based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 94:834-849.

Shaw, C. G. 1978. Peronosclerospora species and other downy mildews of the Gramineae. Mycologia 70:594-604.




Peronosclerospora philippinensis


Geographic Distribution: Africa (Congo, South Africa), Asia. Not reported in the USA.

Substrate: Leaves. Possibly seed-borne.

Disease Note: The APS common name is Philippine downy mildew. This is an APHIS Select Agent and has recently been added to the APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List.

Host Range: Poaceae including Zea mays (maize).

Fungal Order: Peronosporales


Peronosclerospora philippinensis (W. Weston) C.G. Shaw 1978

Sclerospora philippinensis W. Weston 1920  Note: Published as a new species (sp. nov.), but citing S. maydis Reinking, therefore this should be considered a replacement name for the illegitimate homonym Sclerospora maydis Reinking 1918 non (Racib.) Butler 1913.


Sclerospora indica E.J. Butler 1931

[≡Sclerospora maydis Reinking 1918 - illegitimate later homonym]  Note: Not Sclerospora maydis (Racib.) Butler 1913.


Notes: According to Bonde et al. (1984) and Yao et al. (1991) Peronosclerospora philippinensis may be a synonym of Peronosclerospora sacchari.


Supporting Literature:

Bonde, M. R., Peteron, G. L., Dowler, W. M., and May, B. 1984. Isozyme analysis to differentiate species of Peronosclerospora causing downy mildews of maize. Phytopathology 74:1278-1283.

Shaw, C. G. 1978. Peronosclerospora species and other downy mildews of the Gramineae. Mycologia 70:594-604.

Yao, C. -l., Magill, C. W., Frederiksen, R. A., Bonde, M. R., Wang, Y., and Wu, P.-S. 1991. Detection and identification of Peronosclerospora sacchari in maize by DNA hybridization. Phytopathology 81:901-905.




Peronosclerospora sacchari


Geographic Distribution: Asia, Australia. Reports from Central America are unsubstantiated (G. Peterson, personal communication).

Substrate: Leaves; seed-borne.

Disease Note: The APS common name is sugarcane downy mildew.

Host Range: Principal host: Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane). Additional hosts: Zea mays (corn) and other Poaceae.

Fungal Order: Peronosporales


Peronosclerospora sacchari (T. Miyake) Shirai & Hara 1927

Sclerospora sacchari T. Miyake 1912 [1911]


Notes: This is the type species of the genus Peronosclerospora (S. Ito) K. Hara 1927. This name is sometimes erroneously cited as P. sacchari (T. Miyake) C.G. Shaw based on a later superfluous publication. According to Bonde et al. (1984) and Yao et al. (1991), the APHIS Select Agent Peronosclerospora philippinensis is a possible synonym.


Supporting Literature:

Bonde, M. R., Peteron, G. L., Dowler, W. M., and May, B. 1984. Isozyme analysis to differentiate species of Peronosclerospora causing downy mildews of maize. Phytopathology 74:1278-1283.

Riethmuller, A., Voglmayr, H., Goker, M., Wieß, M., and Oberwinkler, F. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the downy mildews (Peronosporales) and related groups based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 94:834-849.

Shaw, C. G. 1978. Peronosclerospora species and other downy mildews of the Gramineae. Mycologia 70:594-604.

Shirai, M., and Hara, K. 1927. A list of Japanese fungi hitherto known. Ni hon Kin rui Moku Roku. Tokyo, Japan.

Yao, C. -l., Magill, C. W., Frederiksen, R. A., Bonde, M. R., Wang, Y., and Wu, P. -S. 1991. Detection and identification of Peronosclerospora sacchari in maize by DNA hybridization. Phytopathology 81:901-905.




Pestalotiopsis disseminata


Geographic Distribution: North America (USA: FL, VA), Caribbean, South America (Venezuela), Europe (Portugal), Asia, Africa. Reported in the USA on Dactylis glomerata (Poaceae) by Roane and Roane (1996).

Substrate: Living and dead leaves.

Disease Note: The APS common name is banana leaf spot.

Host Range: Multiple plant families including Musa spp. (banana, Musaceae).

Fungal Order: Xylariales


Pestalotiopsis disseminata (Thüm.) Steyaert 1949

Pestalotia disseminata Thüm. 1880


Supporting Literature:

Roane, C. W., and Roane, M. K. 1996. Graminicolous Fungi of Virginia: Fungi associated with genera Aegilops to Digitaria. Va. J. Sci. 47:197-224.

Suto, Y., and Kobayashi, T. 1993. Taxonomic studies on the species of Pestalotiopsis parasitic on conifers in Japan. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Jpn. 34:323-344.




Phacidiopycnis pseudotsugae: See Allantophomopsis pseudotsugae




Phialophora cinerescens (Wollenw.) J.F.H. Beyma 1940

Verticillium cinerescens Wollenw. 1930 (as "cinerascens")


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia (China, USSR), North America (Canada; USA: CO, OR), South America (Colombia), New Zealand. It has been reported in the USA on carnations by Altschuler and Brown (1983), and on Fragaria chiloensis (Rosaceae) by Shaw (1973), but Rosaceae are not included in the described host range, therefore this record requires confirmation.

Substrate: Stem vascular tissue.

Disease Note: The APS common name is Phialophora wilt.

Host Range: Principal host: Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation). Additional hosts: other Caryophyllaceae.

Fungal Order: Chaetothyriales


Supporting Literature:

Abliz, P., Fukushima, K., Takizawa, K., and Nishimura, K. 2004. Identification of pathogenic dematiaceous fungi and related taxa based on large subunit ribosomal DNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 40:41-49.

Altschuler, S., and Brown, W. M. 1983. Plant Pests of Colorado: An Annotated Inventory. Colo. State Univ., Ft. Collins.

Shaw, C. G. 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest - I. Hosts. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 765:1-121.

Smith, I. M., McNamara, D. G., Scott, P. R., and Harris, K. M. 1993. Quarantine Pests for Europe. EPPO and CABI Publish., Wallingford, UK.




Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae Hickman 1940


Geographic Distribution: Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, North America (Canada, USA). Numerous reports exist of occurrence in the USA, including Alfieri et al. (1984), Converse et al. (1966), French (1987, 1989), Grand (1985), and Shaw (1973).

Substrate: Roots.

Disease Note: The APS common name is red stele, also known as red core root rot. The most important fungal pathogen of strawberries (Ho and Jong 1988). Only foreign races are listed by APHIS as regulated plant pests.

Host Range: Fragaria × ananassa and Rubus ursinus var. longanobaccus (Rosaceae) are the only known hosts under natural conditions. Infection of other Rosaceae can occur via artificial inoculation (Erwin and Ribeiro 1996).

Fungal Order: Pythiales


Supporting Literature:

Alfieri, S. A., Jr., Langdon, K. R., Wehlburg, C., and Kimbrough, J. W. 1984. Index of Plant Diseases in Florida (Revised). Fla. Dep. Agric. Consum. Serv. Div. Plant Ind. Bull. 11:1-389.

Converse, R. H., Varney, E. H., and Kantzes, J. G. 1966. Occurrence of Phytophthora fragariae race A-5 in Maryland and New Jersey strawberry fields. Plant Dis. Rep. 50:351-352.

Erwin, D. C., and Ribeiro, O. K. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

French, A. M. 1987. California plant disease host index. Part 1: Fruit and nuts. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

French, A. M. 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

Grand, L. F., ed. 1985. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. N. C. Agric. Res. Serv. Tech. Bull. 240:1-157.

Ho, H. H., and Jong, S. C. 1988. Phytophthora fragariae. Mycotaxon 31:305-322.

Shaw, C. G. 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest - I. Hosts. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 765:1-121.




Pseudocercospora timorensis
Note:
Listed by APHIS as Cercospora batatae


Geographic Distribution: South America, Asia, Australia, Africa.

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: The APS common name is Cercospora leaf spot.

Host Range: Ipomoea spp. (sweetpotato, Convolvulaceae).

Fungal Order: Mycosphaerellales


Pseudocercospora timorensis (Cooke) Deighton 1976

Cercospora timorensis Cooke 1883


= Cercospora batatas Zimm. 1904

    Variant spelling Cercospora batatae Zimm. 1904

= Ramularia batatas Racib. 1900

    Variant spelling Ramularia batatae Racib. 1900

= Cercospora ipomoeae-purpureae J.M. Yen 1965

    ≡ Pseudocercospora ipomoeae-purpureae (J.M. Yen) J.M. Yen 1980


Notes: This fungus has received attention under the name Cercospora batatae Zimm. 1904, the name under which it is listed by APHIS as a Regulated Plant Pest in the United States. Cercospora "batatae" is the original spelling; the epithet has been corrected to "batatas".


Chupp (1953) considered Cercospora batatas to be synonymous with Cercospora timorensis Cooke 1883, later transferred by Deighton to the genus Pseudocercospora as Pseudocercospora timorensis (Cooke) Deighton 1976. Pollack (1987), Little (1987) and Crous & Braun (2003) have accepted Chupp’s judgement that Cercospora batatas is a synonym of Pseudocercospora timorensis. Ramularia batatas Racib. 1900 and Cercospora ipomoeae-purpureae J.M. Yen 1965 are also listed by Crous & Braun (2003) as taxonomic synonyms of Pseudocercospora timorensis. The epithet timorensis has priority as the oldest name, therefore the currently accepted scientific name for this fungus is Pseudocercospora timorensis (Cooke) Deighton 1976.


Cercospora ipomoeae-indicae Sawada 1943 is a possible synonym (Chupp 1953).


Supporting Literature:

Chupp, C. 1953. Monograph of the fungus genus Cercospora. Published by author, Ithaca, New York, NY.

Crous, P. W., and Braun, U. 2003. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 1. Names published in Cercospora and Passalora. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Deighton, F. C. 1976. Studies on Cercospora and allied genera. VI. Pseudocercospora Speg., Pantospora Cif. and Cercoseptoria Petr. Mycol. Pap. 140:1-168.

García, C. E., Pons, N., Benítez de Rojas, C. 1996. Fitopatol. Venez. 9:22-36.

Little, S. 1987. Pseudocercospora timorensis. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 918:1-2.

Pollack, F. G. 1987. An annotated compilation of Cercospora names. Mycol. Mem. 12:1-212.




Pseudopezicula tracheiphila;
Alternate State (Anamorph): Phialophora tracheiphila


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia (Jordan, Turkey), Africa (Tunisia). Collections on cultivated grapes from North America and possibly also South America (Brazil) are referred to Pseudopezicula tetraspora Korf, R.C. Pearson, & Zhuang 1986 [1985] (C.M.I. 1991, Korf et al. 1986).

Substrate: Leaves, associated with vascular tissue.

Disease Note: The APS common name is rotbrenner. It is also sometimes referred to as angular leaf scorch disease, but this is the APS common name for Pseudopezicula tetraspora.

Host Range: Vitis spp., Parthenocissus spp. (Vitaceae).

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Pseudopezicula tracheiphila (Müll.-Thurg.) Korf & W.Y. Zhuang 1986 [1985]

Pseudopeziza tracheiphila Müll.-Thurg. 1903


Alternate State (Anamorph):

Phialophora tracheiphila (Sacc. & D. Sacc.) Korf 1986

Botrytis tracheiphila Sacc. & D. Sacc. 1906

Variant spelling Botrytis tracheiphilum Sacc. & D. Sacc. 1906


Notes: The original type specimen is not extant; a neotype was designated by Korf et al. (1986). Saccardo (1906) characterized the original publication as without diagnosis (absque diagnosi), but Korf et al. (1986) argue that Müller-Thurgau's 1903 description constituted valid publication.


Supporting Literature:

C.M.I. 1991. Pseudopezicula tracheiphila. C.M.I. Map 308:1-2.

Korf, R. P., Pearson, R. C., Zhuang, W. Y., and Dubos, B. 1986. Pseudopezicula (Helotiales, Peziculoideae) a new discomycete genus for pathogens causing an angular leaf scorch disease of grapes ('rot brenner'). Mycotaxon 26:457-471.




Puccinia gladioli;
Alternate State (Anamorph): Aecidium valerianellae


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia, Africa (Libya). Only the aecial stage has been reported from North America (USA: WA, OR, CA, Shaw 1973, Blasdale 1919).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Heteroecious rust (Fig. 5).


 

Fig. 5. Puccinia gladioli (left) aecia and (right) teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Telial host Gladiolus spp. (Liliaceae). Aecial host Valerianella and Plectritis spp. (Valerianaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Puccinia gladioli Castagne 1842 [1843]


= Uredo gladioli Duby 1830 Note: A specimen possibly from the original collection contains teliospores of Puccinia gladioli, but the type specimen could not be located to confirm this. This name has been misapplied to species of Papulaspora and Urocystis (see Ainsworth 1949).


[Uredo gladioli Req.] Note: Invalid herbarium name.


Alternate State (Anamorph): Aecidium valerianellae Biv. 1816


Supporting Literature:

Ainsworth, G. C. 1949. The Gladiolus smut. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 32:255-257

Blasdale, W. C. 1919. A preliminary list of the Uredinales of California. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 7:101-157.

Shaw, C. G. 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest - I. Hosts. Wash. State Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 765:1-121.

Wilson, M., and Henderson, D. M. 1966. British Rust Fungi. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Puccinia gladioli




Puccinia horiana


Geographic Distribution: South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia. Outbreaks in North America (Mexico; USA: CA, NJ, OR, PA) have been eradicated. It has been reported in the USA by Bonde et al. (1995), Griesbach et al. (1991), and Peterson et al. (1978).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Autoecious rust (Fig. 6).


     
 

Fig. 6. Puccinia horiana (left) telia on Chrysanthemum sp. leaves and (right) teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).

 

Host Range: Chrysanthemum spp. (Asteraceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Puccinia horiana Henn. 1901


Supporting Literature:

Bonde, M. R., Peterson, G. L., Rizvi, S. A., and Smilanick, J. L. 1995. Myclobutanil as a curative agent for chrysanthemum white rust. Plant Dis. 79:500-505.

Griesbach, J. A., Milbrath, G. M., and Thomson, T. W. 1991. First occurrence of Chrysanthemum white rust caused by Puccinia horiana on florists' chrysanthemum in Oregon. Plant Dis. 75:431.

Peterson, J. L., Davis, S. H., Jr., and Weber, P. V. V. 1978. The occurrence of Puccinia horiana on chrysanthemum in New Jersey. Plant Dis. Rep. 62:357-360.

Punithalingam, E. 1968. Puccinia horiana. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 176:1-2.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Puccinia horiana




Puccinia mccleanii


Geographic Distribution: Africa (South Africa, type).

Disease Note: Microcyclic rust (Fig. 7).


 

Fig. 7. Puccinia mccleanii teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).

 

Host Range: Gladiolus ludwigii (Iridaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Puccinia mccleanii Doidge 1941

Variant spelling Puccinia maccleanii Doidge 1941


Notes: Some authors have corrected the spelling to "maccleanii" to conform to ICBN Rec. 60C.4.a; we retain here the original spelling (see ICBN Art. 60.1 and 60.3).


Supporting Literature:

Doidge, E. M. 1950. The South African fungi and lichens to the end of 1945. Bothalia 5:1-1094.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Puccinia mccleanii




Pucciniastrum actinidiae


Geographic Distribution: Asia (Japan, China, Taiwan).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Autoecious rust (Fig. 8).


 

Fig. 8. Pucciniastrum actinidiae urediniospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).

 

Host Range: Actinidia spp. (Actinidiaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Pucciniastrum actinidiae Hirats. f. 1936 (anamorphic name in a teleomorphic genus)

[= Pucciniastrum actinidiae Hirats. f. ex Hirats. f. 1952 - illegitimate later homonym, teleomorph]


Note: This is an anamorphic name placed in a teleomorphic genus. No legitimate name for the holomorph has currently been published. Hiratsuka (1936) published a description of the uredinial state; the telial state was unknown at the time. In 1952, Hiratsuka added a description of the teleomorphic state to the anamorphic name, thereby creating an illegitimate later homonym (ICBN Art. 59.5 note 1, Art. 59.6 ex. 7).


Supporting Literature:

Hiratsuka, N. 1936. A Monograph of the Pucciniastreae. Mem. Tottori Agric. Coll. 4:1-374.

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K.1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Pucciniastrum actinidiae




Pucciniastrum areolatum: SeeThekopsora areolata




Rhacodiella vitis


Geographic Distribution: Europe (Ukraine).

Substrate: Woody vines.

Disease Note: Spotted necrosis.

Host Range: Vitis spp. (grape, Vitaceae).

Fungal Order: Helotiales


Rhacodiella vitis Sterenberg 1963


Notes: Apparently known only from the type collection.


Supporting Literature:

Sterenberg, P. M. 1963. [Agent of spotted necrosis of the grapevine in the Ukraine - Rhacodiella vitis sp. nov.]. Ukr. Bot. Zh. 20:48-56.




Rosellinia necatrix;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Dematophora necatrix


Geographic Distribution: Cosmopolitan. Reported in the USA by French (1987, 1989), McCain (1964), Petrini (1992), and Wilhelm et al. (1954).

Substrate: Roots.

Disease Note: The APS common names are white root rot for grape, Dematophora crown and root rot (white root rot) for strawberry, andDematophora root rot (Rosellinia root rot) on other commercial crop species. A serious pathogen of apple, apricot, avocado, cassava, citrus, grape, hop, pear, and strawberry.

Host Range: Multiple plant families.

Fungal Order: Xylariales


Rosellinia necatrix Prill. 1902

    Variant spelling Rosellinia necratix Prill. 1902

    Variant spelling Rosellinia necratrix Prill. 1902


Alternate State (Anamorph):
Dematophora necatrix
R. Hartig 1883

Hypoxylon necatrix (R. Hartig) P.M.D. Martin 1976 Note: Not (Berl. ex Prill.) P.M.D. Martin 1968, which is an invalid name, lacking basionym reference, with no Latin protologue. Hypoxylon necatrix (R. Hartig) P.M.D. Martin is an anamorphic name in a teleomorphic genus (ICBN Art. 59.6).

Rhizomorpha necatrix R. Hartig 1883 Note: Simultaneous publication of two alternate names based on conidial and rhizomorph morphology (see ICBN Art. 34.2).


= Graphium desmazierii Sacc. 1878 [1879] Note: Original orthography. Mistakenly described by Saccardo as the anamorph of Rosellinia desmazierii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. 1878 (misapplied, see Petrini 1992).

    Variant spelling Graphium desmazieri Sacc. 1878


Notes:

According to Petrini (1992), the earliest description of the teleomorph of this fungus was provided by Saccardo under the new combination Rosellinia desmazieresii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. 1878, a misapplication of the basionym Sphaeria desmazierii Berk & Broome 1852. As Saccardo did not explicitly exclude the type of the basionym, the name Rosellinia desmazieresii must refer to the fungus described by Berk. & Broome (Art. 7.4), not to the fungus now referred to as Rosellinia necatrix.


The specific epithet necatrix was first applied to the anamorph of this fungus by Hartig in 1883, who published the name as Rhizomorpha (Dematophora) necatrix. The anamorph was given two alternative names by Hartig (1883), a practice that is permitted by the ICBN (Art. 34.2) in publications previous to 1953. Based on rhizomorph morphology, Hartig (1883) used the name Rhizomorpha necatrix, but parenthetically included Dematophora, apparently as an alternate genus (Hartig 1883, p. 95). On page 125 of the same publication, Hartig argued that the fungus did not fit in any existing conidial genus, and that its unique characters "nöthigt zur Aufstellung einer neuen Gattung, welche Dematophora (Büschelträger) genannt werden mag ...In hinblick....scheint mir der Artname necatrix angemessen zu sein". (translated from the German: "require the establishment of a new genus, which may be named Dematophora...In looking back...the epithet necatrix seems appropriate to me"). As Hartig had originally been careful to include the new alternate genus in the original use of the name, it appears that he intentionally combined the genus Dematophora with necatrix, satisfying Article 33.1, despite the fact that he used the name Rhizomorpha necatrix throughout the rest of the publication. Dematophora necatrix is the type of the genus Dematophora; the two were simultaneously validated (descriptio generico-specifica, Art. 42.1).


Hartig (1883) speculated, based on conidial morphology, that the teleomorph of Dematophora necatrix might belong in Rosellinia or a closely related genus, but was not able to observe production of perithecia to confirm his prediction. Viala (1891) was the first after Saccardo (1878) to observe perithecia, and Berlese (1892) drew upon Viala’s observations to propose that the teleomorph was a Rosellinia sp. but did not formally propose a name. Prillieux (1902) was the first to publish the name Rosellinia necatrix, originally without attribution of the name to any other authors. In 1904 Prillieux cited the name as Rosellinia necatrix (R. Hart.) Berlese; as a result the name is sometimes cited in the literature as Rosellinia necatrix Berl. ex Prill. 1904, but, based on his original 1902 publication, the name should be Rosellinia necatrix Prill. 1902.


Martin (1968) transferred this fungus to the genus Hypoxylon, providing an English, but no Latin description, of the teleomorph. Because he failed to provide a full citation of the basionym, this name was invalid (ICBN Art. 33.3; Art. 36.1). He later validated the name as Hypoxylon necatrix (R. Hartig) P.M.D. Martin 1976 based on Rhizomorpha necatrix. Because the basionym is an anamorph, and he failed to add a Latin description of the teleomorph, Hypoxylon necatrix must be considered an anamorphic name in a teleomorphic genus (permissible under ICBN Art. 59.6, Ex. 4, 5, 7).


Teleomorphic type material is not extant; Petrini (1992) chose not to designate a neotype because she could not locate a teleomorphic specimen on the original host. After examining perithecia from a collection by Hanson et al. (1937), Francis (1985) suggested that Rosellinia necatrix was synonymous with Rosellinia bothrina (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. 1882, based on the basionym Sphaeria bothrina Berk. & Broome 1873 (see following entry). If this synonymy were accepted, the name Rosellinia bothrina would have priority, however, this has not been adopted by more recent authors (e.g. Petrini 1992, Nakamura et al. 2000).


Based on Saccardo’s 1878 description of the anamorph, Petrini (1992) placed Graphium desmazierii Sacc. 1878 as a synonym of Dematophora necatrix Hartig 1883. Petrini (1992) recommended that the specific epithet necatrix be retained for the anamorph of this fungus rather than the older epithet desmazierii due to the importance of Dematophora necatrix as a pathogen. In anticipation of a proposal to conserve Dematophora necatrix Hartig 1883 against the synonym Graphium desmazierii Sacc. 1878, our nomenclature report retains the name Dematophora necatrix, following Petrini (1992).


Supporting Literature:

Francis, S. M. 1985. Rosellinia necatrix – fact or fiction? Sydowia 38:75-86.

French, A. M. 1987. California plant disease host index. Part 1: Fruit and nuts. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

French, A. M. 1989. California Plant Disease Host Index. Calif. Dep. of Food and Agric., Sacramento.

Hartig, R. 1883. Rhizomorpha (Dermatophora) necatrix n. sp. –Untersuchungen aus dem Forstbotanischen Institut zu München III: 95-140.

Hansen, H. N., Thomas, H. E., and Thomas, H. Earl. 1937. The connection between Dematophora necatrix and Rosellinia necatrix. Hilgardia 10:561-564.

McCain, A. H. 1964. Dematophora root rot of Hypericum in California. Plant Dis. Rep. 48:139.

Nakamura, H., Uetake, Y., Arakawa, M., Okabe, N., and Matsumoto, N. 2000. Observations on the teleomorph of the white root rot fungus,Rosellinia necatrix, and a related fungus, Rosellinia aquila. Mycoscience 41:503-507.

Petrini, L. E. 1992. Rosellinia species of the temperate zones. Sydowia 44:169-281.

Prillieux E. 1902. Les perithèces du Rosellinia necatrix. Comptes-Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris. Séance du 12 août 1902: 275-278.

Prillieux, E. 1904. Sur la dehiscence des perithèces du Rosellinia necatrix (R. Hart.) Berlese. Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr. 20:34-38.

Sivanesan, A., and Holliday, P. 1972. Rosellinia necatrix. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 352:1-2.

Viala, P. 1891. Monographie du Pourridie (Dematophora). (Thèses présentées a la faculté des sciences de Paris). 124 pp.

Wilhelm, S., Raabe, R. D., and Thomas, H. E. 1954. Dematophora root and crown rot of strawberry. Plant Dis. Rep. 38:72-73.




Rosellinia bothrina

(Not an APHIS regulated plant pest. Listed for comparison to Rosellinia necatrix).


Geographic Distribution: Africa, Asia, Papua New Guinea, South America (Brazil).

Substrate: Roots, stumps, dead wood.

Host Range: Various plant families.

Fungal Order: Xylariales


Rosellinia bothrina (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. 1882

Sphaeria bothrina Berk. & Broome 1873

= Rosellinia arcuata Petch 1916


Notes: Francis (1985) proposed that Rosellinia necatrix was a taxonomic synonym, but this has not been widely adopted.


Supporting Literature:

Francis, S. M. 1985. Rosellinia necatrix – fact or fiction? Sydowia 38:75-86.




Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae


Geographic Distribution: Asia (India, also reported in Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand).

Substrate: Leaves, leaf sheaths, seeds.

Disease Note: The APS common name is brown stripe downy mildew. This is an APHIS Select Agent.

Host Range: Principal host: Zea mays (corn, Poaceae). Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass) is also susceptible (Green 1984).

Fungal Order: Sclerosporales.


Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae Payak & Naras. 1967


Supporting Literature:

Green, A. 1984. Brown stripe downy mildew. Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae. Pests Not Known to Occur in the United States or of Limited Distribution 55:1-7.

Payak, M. M., and Renfro, B. L. 1967. A new downy mildew disease of maize. Phytopathology 57:394-397.




Septoria melanosa var. melanosa


Geographic Distribution: Europe (France), Eurasia (Ukraine, Russia), the Americas (Saccardo 1931).

Substrate: Living leaves.

Disease Note: Leaf spot. This fungus is not listed on the APS common name website. A possible source of confusion exists between the homonym Septoria ampelina Viala & Ravaz 1887 (= Septoria melanosa var. melanosa) and Septoria ampelina Berk. & M.A. Curtis 1865, for which the APS common name is Septoria leaf spot (mélanose).

Host Range: Vitis riparia, Vitis rupestris (Vitaceae).

Fungal Order: Mycosphaerellales


Septoria melanosa var. melanosa Elenkin 1909

[≡Septoria ampelina Viala & Ravaz 1887 - illegitimate later homonym] Note: Not Berk. & M.A. Curtis 1865.


Notes: Elenkin (1909) introduced this name, as Septoria melanosa (Viala & Ravaz) Elenkin, to replace the illegitimate later homonym Septoria ampelina Viala & Ravaz 1887, non Berk. & M.A. Curtis 1865. According to Saccardo (1931), Septoria melanosa var. melanosa was introduced into Russia from the Americas and France.


Supporting Literature:

Elenkin, A. A. 1909. Zh. Bolez. Rast. 3:60 (not seen).

Saccardo, P. A. 1931. Sylloge Fungorum XXV:457.





Stereum hiugense: See Xylobolus hiugensis




Stigmina deflectens


Geographic Distribution: North America (Canada; USA: SD, WI), Europe. Reported in the USA by Mankin (1969).

Substrate: Leaves.

Host Range: Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae).

Fungal Order: Dothideales


Stigmina deflectens (P. Karst.) M.B. Ellis 1959

Exosporium deflectens P. Karst. 1888


Supporting Literature:

Ellis, M. B. 1959. Clasterosporium and some allied Dematiaceae-Phragmosporae. II. Mycol. Pap. 72:1-75.

Mankin, C. J. 1969. Fungous diseases on non-grass plants in South Dakota. Agric. Exp. Sta. S. D. State Univ. Tech. Bull. 36:1-28.

Sutton, B. C., and Hodges, C. S. 1990. Revision of Cercospora-like fungi on Juniperus and related conifers. Mycologia 82:313-325.




Synchytrium endobioticum
Note:
APHIS Select Agent


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia, Africa, North America (Canada: Newfoundland; USA: MD, PA, WV), South America, New Zealand. Originated from South America, introduced to Europe in 1880's. It has been reported in the USA by Hyre (1951), Jehle (1951), and by an anonymous report (1960).

Substrate: Tubers, sometimes aerial shoots.

Disease Note: The APS common name is potato wart, also known as blackwart. APHIS has listed it as a Select Agent.

Host Range: Natural host: Solanum tuberosum (potato). Other Solanaceae including tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, may be infected via artificial inoculation.

Fungal Order: Chytridiales


Synchytrium endobioticum (Schilb.) Percival 1909 [1910]

Chrysophlyctis endobioticum Schilb. 1896

= Synchytrium solani Massee 1910


Supporting Literature:

Anonymous. 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. USDA Agric. Handb. 165:1-531.

Hampson, M. C. 1993. History, biology, and control of potato wart disease in Canada. Can. J. Plant. Pathol. 15:223-244.

Hyre, R. 1951. A new severe case of potato wart in Pennsylvania. Plant Dis. Rep. 35:432.

Jehle, R. A. 1951. Potato wart in Maryland. Plant Dis. Rep. 35:432.

Smith, I. M., McNamara, D. G., Scott, P. R., and Harris, K. M. 1993. Quarantine Pests for Europe. EPPO and CABI Publish., Wallingford, UK.




Thekopsora areolata
Note: Listed by APHIS as Pucciniastrum areolatum; Alternate State (Anamorph): Aecidium strobilinum


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia, Caribbean (Dominican Republic).

Substrate: Aecia on spruce cone scales; telia on leaves of Prunus spp..

Disease Note: Heteroecious rust (Fig. 9).


 

Fig. 9. Thekopsora areolata (left) aeciospores and (right) aecia on a Picea sp. cone (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Aecial host Picea spp. (Pinaceae; telial host Prunus spp. (Rosaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Thekopsora areolata (Fr.:Fr.) Magnus 1875

Xyloma areolatum Fr.:Fr. 1817

Melampsora areolata (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. 1849

Pucciniastrum areolatum (Fr.:Fr.) G.H. Otth 1863

Sclerotium areolatum (Fr.:Fr.) Fr. 1822


= Uredo padi Kunze & J.C. Schmidt 1817 Note: This is presumably a description of the teleomorph; the name is based on the telial host Prunus padus.

    ≡ Pucciniastrum padi (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) Dietel 1897

    ≡ Melampsora padi (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) G. Winter 1884

    ≡ Thekopsora padi (Kunze & J.C. Schmidt) Kleb. 1900


= Uredo porphyrogenita Link 1826 Note: Description on telial host, therefore presumably a teleomorph in an anamorphic genus.


= Pucciniastrum strobilinum Liro 1908 Note: Based on Licea strobilina Alb. & Schwein. 1805 (anamorph, with a description of the teleomorph added).

    ≡ Thekopsora strobilina (Liro) Jorst. 1925 Note: This

    name was published as (Albertini & Schweinitz) Jorst. but

    it was based on an anamorph.


Notes: The epithet "areolatum" was sanctioned by Fries; it therefore has priority over the epithet "padi". Uredo padi Kunze & Schmidt 1817 was based on description of the fungus on the telial host (a holomorphic name in an anamorphic genus, see ICBN Art. 59.6, Ex. 4,5,7). Licea strobilina Alb. & Schwein. 1805 was originally classified as a myxomycete, but was based on a description of this fungus on the aecial host. Past authors have asserted that "strobilina", the oldest epithet, should be applied to the holomorph (see Liro 1908), however, this is counter to the current Code (ICBN Art. 59.1).


Alternate State (Anamorph):

Aecidium strobilinum (Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.) Reess 1869 Note: First author to classify this fungus as a rust.

Licea strobilina Alb. & Schwein.:Fr. 1805 Note: Originally misclassified as a myxomycete, but the type specimen contains aecial structures.

Perichaena strobilina (Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.) Fr. 1842 Note: Sanctioned by Fries (misapplied).

Phelonitis strobilina (Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.) Fr. 1849 Misapplied. Originally published as "Phelonites".

Pleosporopsis strobilina (Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.) Oerst. 1865 Note: Misapplied. Type of Pleosporopsis, listed as a dubious genus by Sacc. (III:693). Possibly confused with Pleosporopsis strobilorum Oerst. 1865 (not a synonym of Licea strobilina).

Pomatomyces strobilina (Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.) Oerst. 1864 Note: Type of the monotypic genus Pomatomyces.

Rosellinia strobilina (Alb. & Schwein.:Fr.) Arx & E. Mull. 1954 Note: Misapplied.


Notes: Pomatomyces strobilina is the type of the monotypic genus Pomatomyces Oerst. 1864. The genus Pomatomyces is listed as the anamorph of Thekopsora by Kirk et al. (2001) but not included in the list of accepted rust genera by Cummins & Hiratsuka (2003), who describe the aecial state of Thekopsora as Peridermium-type. In the absence of a published combination in Peridermium, we list the aecial state under the accepted name Aecidium strobilinum. Pomatomyces strobilina is based on Licea strobilina, which was originally classified as a myxomycete. In his sanctioning work, Fries transferred it to the myxomycetous genus Perichaena. It was subsequently misapplied to a number of ascomycetous genera by various authors. Reess (1869) recognized that the type specimen contained the aecial state of a rust fungus, and made the transfer to Aecidium.


Supporting Literature:

Cummins, G. B., and Hiratsuka, Y. 2003. Illustrated Genera of Rust Fungi, 3rd Ed. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

Hiratsuka, N., Sato, S., Katsuya, K., Kakishima, M., Hiratsuka, Y., Kaneko, S., Ono, Y., Sato, T., Harada, Y., Hiratsuka, T., and Nakayama, K.1992. The rust flora of Japan. Tsukuba Shuppankai, Takezono, Ibaraki, Japan.

Liro, J. I. 1908. Uredineae Fennicae Finlands Rostsvampar. Fin. Litteratursallsk.

Wilson, M. and Henderson, D. M. 1966. British Rust Fungi. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Thekopsora areolata




Tilletia indica


Geographic Distribution: Asia, North America (Mexico; USA: AZ, TX). Reports from Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, and Sweden are doubtful (Smith 1992). It has been reported in the USA by Ykema et al. (1996). Substrate: Seed heads, florets.

Disease Note: The APS common name is karnal bunt, or partial bunt (Fig. 10).


 

Fig. 10. Tilletia indica on wheat kernels (photo credit L. Castlebury).

 

Host Range: Triticum sp., Triticale (Triticum x Secale) (wheat, Poaceae). Reports on Lolium spp. refer to Tilletia walkeri L.A. Castlebury & L.M. Carris 1999.

Fungal Order: Tilletiales


Tilletia indica Mitra 1931

Neovossia indica (Mitra) Mundk. 1940


Notes: The transfer to the genus Neovossia has not been accepted by most authors; see Castlebury et al. (2005) for discussion.


Supporting Literature:

Castlebury, L. A., and Carris, L. M. 1999. Tilletia walkeri, a new species on Lolium multiflorum and L. perenne. Mycologia 91:121-131.

Castlebury, L. A., Carris, L. M., and Vanky, K. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Tilletia and allied genera in order Tilletiales (Ustilaginomycetes; Exobasidiomycetidae) based on large subunit nuclear rDNA sequences. Mycologia 97:888-900.

Smith, I. M., McNamara, D. G., Scott, P. R., and Harris, K. M. 1993. Quarantine Pests for Europe. EPPO and CABI Publish., Wallingford, UK.

Waller, J. M., and Mordue, J. E. M. 1983. Tilletia indica. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 748:1-2.

Ykema, R. E., Floyd, J. P., Palm, M. E., and Peterson, G. L. 1996. First report of karnal bunt of wheat in the United States. Plant Dis. 80:1207.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Tilletia indica




Trachysphaera fructigena


Geographic Distribution: Africa. Also reported from South America (Brazil) in 1998.

Substrate: Fruits, pods.

Disease Note: The APS common names are Trachysphaera pod rot (mealy pod) of cacao and cigar-end of banana.

Host Range: Trees from various plant families. Crop plants affected include Coffea spp. (Coffee, Rubiaceae), Theobroma cacao (cacao, Malvaceae), and Musa spp. (banana, Musaceae).

Fungal Order: Pythiales


Trachysphaera fructigena Tabor & Bunting 1923


Supporting Literature:

Holliday, P. 1970. Trachysphaera fructigena. C.M.I. Descr. Pathog. Fungi Bact. 229:1-2.




Uredo dioscoreae-alatae;
Alternate State (Teleomorph):
Goplana dioscoreae nom. illeg.


Geographic Distribution: Australia, Asia (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea).

Substrate: Leaves, petioles.

Disease Note: Autoecious rust.

Host Range: Dioscorea spp. (Dioscoreaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Uredo dioscoreae-alatae Racib. 1900

= Aecidium dioscoreae Berk. & Broome 1875 [1873] Note: Not Aecidium dioscoreae Lindq, 1953 nom. illeg..

[≡Uredo dioscoreae (Berk. & Broome) Petch 1912 nom. illeg.] Note: Not Uredo dioscoreae Henn. 1896

Goplana dioscoreae (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935 Note: This is an anamorph in a teleomorphic genus. Not Goplana dioscoreae Cummins 1960 nom. illeg.


= Uredo dioscoreae-pyrifoliae W.Y. Yen 1970


Alternate State (Teleomorph):

[Goplana dioscoreae Cummins 1960 nom. illeg.] non (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935 (anamorph)


Cummins (1935) was the first to describe the teleomorphic (telial) state of this fungus. He created the new combination Goplana dioscoreae (Berk. & Broome) Cummins, based on the anamorph, Aecidium dioscoreae Berk. & Broome 1875. Cummins did not provide a Latin description of the teleomorphic state (Art. 36.1), therefore, while a valid name for the anamorph, this cannot serve as a valid name for the teleomorph. Other authors have listed Goplana dioscoreae (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935 as an invalid name, nom. nud., because the teleomorph lacked a Latin description (Cummins 1960, Ono 1982, Ono & Hennen 1983). This is contrary to the current Code because the combination was validly published based on the basionym Aecidium dioscoreae Berk. & Broome 1875. Goplana dioscoreae (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935 must be considered an anamorph in a teleomorphic genus, typified by A. dioscoreae Berk. & Broome (Art. 59.6, Ex. 7).


In 1960, Cummins republished the name, as Goplana dioscoreae Cummins 1960, non (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935, this time providing a Latin description of the teleomorphic state. G. dioscoreae Cummins 1960 non (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935 is therefore a validly published name for the teleomorph, but it is an illegitimate later homonym of the anamorphic name Goplana dioscoreae (Berk. & Broome) Cummins 1935 (see Art. 59.6, Ex. 5 and 7). No other legitimate name exists for the teleomorph of Uredo dioscoreae-alatae. A replacement name for G. dioscoreae Cummins 1960 will be proposed in a future publication (Hernandez & Cline, unpublished).


Supporting Literature:

Cummins, G. B. 1960. Descriptions of tropical rusts-IX. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 87:31-45.

Cummins, G. B. 1935. The genus Dicheirinia. Mycologia 27:151-159.

Kern, F. D., Ciferri, R., and Thurston, H. W., Jr. 1933. The rust-flora of the Dominican Republic. Ann. Mycol. 31:1-40.

Ono, Y. 1982. Rusts of yams in Southeast Asia and South Pacific. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc. 79:423-429.

Ono, Y., and Hennen, J. F. 1983. Taxonomy of the Chaconiaceous genera (Uredinales). Trans. Mycol. Soc. Jpn. 24:369-402.

Raciborski, M. 1900. Parasitische Algen und Pilze Java's I. Theil. Staatsdruckerei.

Stevenson, J. A. 1975. Fungi of Puerto Rico and the American Virgin Islands. Contr. Reed Herb. 23:743.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Uredo dioscoreae-alatae




Uredo gladioli-buettneri


Geographic Distribution: Africa (Togo).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Uredinial rust.

Host Range: Gladiolus buettneri (Iridaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Uredo gladioli-buettneri Bubák 1911

Variant spelling Uredo gladioli-buttneri Bubák 1911 Note: Original spelling.


Supporting Literature:

Sydow, H., and Sydow, P. 1911. Novae fungorum species—VI. Ann. Mycol. 9:142-146.




Urocystis agropyri


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America (Argentina), Australia. Multiple reports exist of its occurrence in the USA on Agropyron spp., including by Fischer (1953), Mankin (1969), Meiners and Fischer (1957), and Roane and Roane (1996).

Substrate: Leaf blades, sometimes glumes and rhizomes.

Disease Note: The APS common name on wheat is flag smut, but this refers to Urocystis agropyri in the broad sense only (see Host Range note). The APHIS Regulated Plant Pest List includes only foreign strains of Urocystis agropyri.

Host Range: Urocystis agropyri sensu stricto is restricted to the grasses Agropyron spp. and Elytrigia spp. Urocystis agropyri in the broader concept of Fischer (1953) includes flag smuts on other grasses, including Triticum spp. (wheat, Poaceae) (see Urocystis tritici).

Fungal Order: Urocystales


Urocystis agropyri (Preuss) A.A. Fisch. Waldh. 1867

Uredo agropyri Preuss 1848

Polycystis agropyri (Preuss) J. Schröt. 1877

Tuburcinia agropyri (Preuss) Liro 1922

Tuburcinia occulta [var.] agropyri (Preuss) Cif. 1963


= Tuburcinia agropyri-campestris Massenot 1955

    ≡ Urocystis agropyri-campestris (Massenot) H. Zogg 1986

= Urocystis preussii J.G. Kühn 1874


[Tuburcinia agropyri-juncei Vienn.-Bourg. 1954] Note: Invalid name, no Latin diagnosis (nom. nud.).

[Urocystis agropyri-juncei (Vienn.-Bourg.) H. Zogg 1986] Note: Invalid name, no Latin diagnosis (nom. nud.).


Notes: Preuss (1848) published the name Uredo agropyri for a smut occurring on a host plant labelled with the German common name "Quackengras"; authors have interpreted this as the grass currently named Elytrigia repens (as Agropyron repens or Triticum repens). Fischer von Waldheim (1867) transferred this fungus from Uredo to Urocystis, citing as basionym Uredo agropyri Pers.; however, there is no record that Persoon ever published this name. Körnicke (1877) speculated that the author attribution was the result of a typographical error. The incorrect author citation does not invalidate the name (ICBN Art. 33.4), and it should be cited as Urocystis agropyri (Preuss) A.A. Fisch. Waldh. 1867.

When making the new combination Urocystis agropyri, Fischer von Waldheim (1867) added a description of a smut on the host Carex acuta (Cyperaceae); however, this smut is now considered to be a distinct species, Urocystis fischeri Körn. ex G. Winter 1881. Despite being applied by Fischer von Waldheim to the smut of Carex, the name Urocystis agropyri refers to the flag smut of Poaceae, typified by the type of its basionym, Uredo agropyri (ICBN Art. 7.4).


Schröter (1869) described Urocystis agropyri, listing Triticum repens (≡Elytrigia repens) as host. Körnicke (1877) argued that the name Urocystis agropyri (Preuss) A.A. Fisch. Waldh. 1867 should be rejected because the description refers to a different fungus than the basionym cited, and instead the name Urocystis agropyri (Preuss) J. Schröt. 1869 should be the accepted name for the flag smut of Poaceae, but this is counter to the current Code (ICBN Art. 7.4). The name is commonly erroneously cited as Urocystis agropyri (Preuss) J. Schröt. 1869 in the literature.


Körnicke (1877) suggested that the smut described by Fischer von Waldheim on Carex acuta under the name Urocystis agropyri be named Urocystis fischeri, retaining the name Urocystis agropyri for the flag smut of Poaceae. He failed to provide a description, therefore, it fell to Winter (1881) to provide a description and validate the name, as Urocystis fischeri Körn. ex G. Winter 1881.


Using a morphological species concept, Fischer (1953) rejected species distinctions based on host specificity within the Poaceae and treated an extensive list of Urocystis species, including Urocystis tritici, as synonyms of Urocystis agropyri. This has not been accepted by most later authors (Purdy 1965, Scholz 1988, Vanky 1994, Denchev 2001, but see Mordue & Ainsworth 1984).


Supporting Literature:

Denchev, C. M. 2001. Class Ustomycetes (Orders Tilletiales, Ustilaginales, and Graphiolales). Fungi Bulgar. 4:1-286.

Fischer, G. W. 1953. Manual of the North American Smut Fungi. Ronald Press Company, New York.

Mankin, C. J. 1969. Diseases of grasses and cereals in South Dakota. Agric. Exp. Sta. South Dakota State Univ. Techn. Bull. 35:1-27.

Meiners, J. P., and Fischer, G. W. 1957. Some new grass smut records from the western states. III. Mycologia 49:767-771.

Roane, C. W., and Roane, M. K. 1996. Graminicolous fungi of Virginia: Fungi associated with genera Aegilops to Digitaria. Va. J. Sci. 47:197-224.

Mordue, J. E. M., and Ainsworth, G. C. 1984. Ustilaginales of the British Isles. Mycol. Pap. 154:1-96.

Purdy, L. H. 1965. Flag smut of wheat. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 31:565-606

Scholz, H., and Scholz, I. 1988. Die Brandpilze Deutschlands (Ustilaginales). Englera 8:1-691.

Vanky, K. 1994. European Smut Fungi. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

Zogg, H. 1985. Die Brandpilze Mitteleuropas unter Besonderer Berucksichtigung der Schweiz. Cryptogam. Helv. 16:1-277.




Urocystis fischeri

(Not an APHIS regulated plant pest. Listed for comparison to Urocystis agropyri).


Geographic Distribution: Europe, Asia, North America, Africa (Kenya).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Smut.

Host Range: Carex spp. (Cyperaceae).

Fungal Order: Urocystales


Urocystis fischeri Körn. ex G. Winter 1881

Tuburcinia fischeri (Körn. ex G. Winter) Liro 1922


[Urocystis fischeri Körn. 1877] Note: invalid name (nom. nud.).

[Tuburcinia rigida Liro 1939] Note: Invalid name, no Latin diagnosis (ICBN Art. 36.1).


Notes: Körnicke assigned the new name Urocystis fischeri to the fungus described by Fischer von Waldheim on Carex acuta under the name Urocystis agropyri. Because he did not provide a description, this is an invalid name (nom. nud.). Winter later provided a description and validated the name Urocystis fischeri Körn. ex G. Winter 1881. The invalid name Urocystis caricis Ule 1884 (nom. nud., no description) has also been applied to this fungus.


Supporting Literature:

Lindeberg, B. 1959. Ustilaginales of Sweden. Symb. Bot. Ups. 16:1-175.

Scholz, H., and Scholz, I. 1988. Die Brandpilze Deutschlands (Ustilaginales). Englera 8:1-691.

Zogg, H. 1985. Die Brandpilze Mitteleuropas unter Besonderer Berucksichtigung der Schweiz. Cryptog. Helv. 16:1-277.




Urocystis tritici


Geographic Distribution: Cosmopolitan. It has been reported in the USA by Zundel (1953) and by an anonymous report (1960).

Substrate: Leaves, sometimes glumes and rhizomes.

Disease Note: The APS common name for this fungus on wheat is flag smut (listed under the nameUrocystis agropyri, see above).

Host Range: Triticum spp. (Poaceae).

Fungal Order: Urocystales


Urocystis tritici Körn. 1877

Tuburcinia tritici (Körn.) Liro 1922


Notes: Using a morphological species concept, Fischer (1953) rejected species distinctions based on host specificity within the Poaceae and placed Urocystis tritici as a synonym of Urocystis agropyri. This has not been universally accepted by later authors (Purdy 1965, Scholz 1988, Vanky 1994, Denchev 2001, but see Mordue & Ainsworth 1984).


Supporting Literature:

Anonymous 1960. Index of Plant Diseases in the United States. USDA Agric. Handb. 165:1-531.

Denchev, C. M. 2001. Class Ustomycetes (Orders Tilletiales, Ustilaginales, and Graphiolales). Fungi Bulgar. 4:1-286.

Fischer, G. W. 1953. Manual of the North American Smut Fungi. Ronald Press Company, New York.

Mordue, J. E. M., and Ainsworth, G. C. 1984. Ustilaginales of the British Isles. Mycol. Pap. 154:1-96.

Purdy, L. H. 1965. Flag smut of wheat. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 31:565-606.

Savile, D. B. O. 1953. Notes on Boreal Ustilaginales. Can. J. Bot. 31:663-674.

Scholz, H., and Scholz, I. 1988. Die Brandpilze Deutschlands (Ustilaginales). Englera 8:1-691.

Vanky, K. 1994. European Smut Fungi. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany.

Zogg, H. 1985. Die Brandpilze Mitteleuropas unter Besonderer Berucksichtigung der Schweiz. Cryptog. Helv. 16:1-277.

Zundel, G. L. 1953. The Ustilaginales of the World. Contr. Dep. Bot. Pa. State Coll. School Agric. 176:1-410.




Uromyces gladioli


Geographic Distribution: Africa, recently introduced into South America (Argentina, Uruguay), see Smith (1992).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Autoecious rust (Fig. 11).


 

Fig. 11. Uromyces gladioli (left) teliospores and (right) urediniospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Multiple genera of Iridaceae.

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Uromyces gladioli Henn. 1895

= Uromyces babianae Doidge 1927

= Uromyces geissorhizae Henn. 1900

= Uromyces romuleae Van der Byl & Werderm. 1923 Not Doidge 1927.

    Variant spelling Uromyces romouleae Van der Byl & Werderm.

    1923 Note: Original spelling.


[= Uromyces romuleae Doidge 1927 - illegitimate later homonym] Not Van der Byl & Werderm. 1923.


Supporting Literature:

Doidge, E. M. 1948. South African rust fungi VI. The species of Uromyces on Iridaceae. Bothalia 4:919-937.

Smith, I. M., McNamara, D. G., Scott, P. R., and Harris, K. M. 1993. Quarantine Pests for Europe. EPPO and CABI Publish., Wallingford, UK.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Uromyces gladioli




Uromyces nyikensis


Geographic Distribution: Africa (Zambia).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Microcyclic rust (Fig. 12).


 

Fig. 12. Uromyces nyikensis teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).

 

Host Range: Gladiolus erectiflorus (as Gladiolus nyikensis, Iridaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Uromyces nyikensis Syd. & P. Syd. 1904


Supporting Literature:

Hernández, J. R. 2006. Uromyces nyikensis on Gladiolus. Online. Fungi Online, Invasive Fungi. Systemat. Botany & Mycol. Lab., ARS, USDA.

Sydow, H. & Sydow, P. 1904. Neue und kritische Uredineen. Annales Mycologici 2:27-31.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Uromyces nyikensis




Uromyces transversalis;
Alternate State (Anamorph):
Uredo transversalis


Geographic Distribution: Africa, South America (Brazil, Argentina), North America (Mexico), Europe, Australia, New Zealand. Intercepted in El Paso TX on leaves of Gladiolus sp. imported from Mexico (Specimens BPI 863538, 871558, collected Sept. 2004).

Substrate: Leaves.

Disease Note: Autoecious rust (Fig. 13).


   
 

Fig. 13. Uromyces transversalis (top) uredinia on a Gladiolus sp., (bottom left) urediniospores, and (bottom right) teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Multiple genera of Iridaceae.

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Uromyces transversalis G. Winter 1884

= Uromyces watsoniae Syd. & P. Syd. 1910


Alternate State (Anamorph): Uredo transversalis Thüm. 1876


Supporting Literature:

Doidge, E.M. 1948. South African rust fungi VI. The species of Uromyces on Iridaceae. Bothalia 4:919-937.

Doidge, E.M. 1950. The South African fungi and lichens to the end of 1945. Bothalia 5:1-1094.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Uromyces transversalis




Uromycladium tepperianum


Geographic Distribution: Australia.

Substrate: Live branches.

Disease Note: Gall rust (Fig. 14). Suggested for biocontrol of invasive Acacia spp. (Morris 1987).


 

Fig. 14. Uromycladium tepperianum (left) stem galls on Acacia saligna and (right) teliospores (photo credit J. Hernandez).


Host Range: Acacia spp. (Fabaceae).

Fungal Order: Uredinales


Uromycladium tepperianum (Sacc.) McAlpine 1906

Uromyces tepperianus Sacc. 1889


Supporting Literature:

McAlpine, D. 1905. A new genus of Uredineae—Uromycladium. Annales Mycologici 3:303-323.

Morris, M. J. 1987. Biology of the Acacia gall rust, Uromycladium tepperianum. Plant Pathol. 36:100-106.


Click the following link for diagnostic information and detailed distributional data: Uromycladium tepperianum




Xylobolus hiugensis
Note:
Listed by APHIS as Stereum huigense


Geographic Distribution: Asia (Japan).

Substrate: Dead trees.

Disease Note: White rot.

Host Range: Quercus spp. (Fagaceae).

Fungal Order: Russulales


Xylobolus hiugensis (Imazeki) Imazeki & Hongo 1989

Stereum hiugense Imazeki 1939


Supporting Literature:

Imazeki, R. 1939. [Observations on Japanese fungi (III). Some of [sic] hard and perennial Stereums in Japan]. J. Jpn. Bot. 15:579-588.




Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Drs. Cathie Aime, Lisa Castlebury, and José Hernández for kindly providing digital photographs. We are grateful to Drs. Mary Palm and Amy Rossman for helpful comments and careful review of the manuscript.



*Erratum

A correction was made to this line on May 17, 2006. Previously, Glyceria had been misspelled.