Posted 22 April 2011. PMN Crop News.
Cereal Disease Pressure Rising
Source: Syngenta Press Release. www.syngenta.com
Greensboro, North Carolina (April 12, 2011)--Currently, the Cereals Disease Laboratory and Washington State University (WSU) are tracking wheat stripe rust and wheat leaf rust progression in winter wheat throughout the Pacific Northwest. In mid-March, leaf rust pustules were found in a south central Washington wheat field. This year, wheat stripe rust was noted earlier than in 2010. Active sporulation formed in areas of Oregon and Washington in mid-February, and despite the cold weather later in the month, stripe rust was detected in many fields in southeastern and central Washington by mid-March, as well.
Xianming Chen, Ph.D., research plant pathologist at WSU, recommends growers check their fields for stripe rust and optimize their disease-prevention practices by tank mixing a fungicide with a herbicide at herbicide application timing.
Research shows that diseases like rusts in wheat and barley can cause devastating yield loss up to 40 percent and, in some cases, complete crop destruction. Syngenta reminds cereal growers to actively scout fields and monitor disease-tracking websites throughout the season to assess the need for a fungicide application, like Quilt® fungicide.
“There are many online tools available to help cereal growers monitor the latest disease-outbreak patterns in their region,” said Grant Aldridge, Syngenta fungicide brand manager. “In addition, they should use timely scouting to assess disease levels in their own fields. We know there are two stages that are critical to end yield – Feekes Growth Stages 2 to 5 and Feekes Growth Stages 8 to 10.5. Growers should develop a disease-management plan that includes preventive and curative fungicide options to protect their crop.”
FGS 2 to 5: Spikelet Formation
Disease control is critical during the reproductive stages of FGS 2 to 5 as the number of spikelets and size of kernels are determined at that time.
“Protecting tillers during this timeframe will help them become more efficient and possibly help the plant put on several more tillers, as well,” explained Jon Rich, Central Plains AgriPro wheat breeder with Syngenta Seeds. “A fungicide application during this time helps protect plants from early, cool-season diseases like tan spot, Septoria and powdery mildew.
“Fungicides like Tilt® can help make the plant more productive and perform at a higher level. You’re reducing disease pressure at that time, and you’re enabling the plant to produce more spikelets per head,” Rich added.
Syngenta offers a comprehensive fungicide program for cereal growers, recommending an application of Tilt, which has both systemic and some curative properties against certain diseases at FGS 2 to 5. At a rate of 2 or 4 ounces per acre, Tilt will suppress powdery mildew, late blight, glume blotch and tan spot.
This early timing also coincides with herbicide or foliar fertilizer applications to maximize the trip across the field. Tilt can easily be tank mixed with Axial® XL herbicide to provide one-pass disease and mixed grass control.
FGS 8 to 10.5: Flag Leaf
As the crop closes in on maturity, FGS 8 to 10.5 become the most critical as this is when the flag leaf emerges. Protecting the flag leaf is important for maximizing yield potential – the highest yield is normally obtained when fungicide is applied as the flag leaf reaches 50- to 70-percent full emergence.
“The flag leaf, being the leaf that is right below the head, is the one that is feeding the grain the most, which makes it the most important contributor to final grain yield,” said Tim Murray, Ph.D., professor of plant pathology at WSU.
Quilt fungicide helps protect the valuable flag leaf from yield-robbing foliar diseases like rusts, tan spot, powdery mildew and Septoria. By combining the Power of Two™ proven brands, Quilt delivers broad-spectrum, preventive and curative disease control up to FGS 10.5.
In addition to disease protection, Quilt provides plants with certain physiological benefits. These Plant Performance™ benefits include:
• Improved plant growth for higher yields
• Increased water-use efficiency resulting in more crop growth
• Extended grain fill as the final step in optimizing yields
In fact, research has shown that Quilt can increase yields an average of 7 to 12 bu/A in cereal crops, in part due to these benefits. This can represent a sizable profit bump for growers.
As the Cereals Disease Laboratory and WSU continue to track leaf rust, stripe rust and other diseases throughout the Pacific Northwest, cereal growers should ensure their crops are protected from diseases from planting to harvest. Careful preparation, disease monitoring, sound scouting techniques and preventive and curative fungicide programs are available to aid growers in implementing a successful disease-management plan throughout the growing season.