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Tables 1 to 5 from:


Ali, A., Abdalla, O., Bruton, B., Fish, W., Sikora, E., Zhang, S., and Taylor, M. 2012. Occurrence of viruses infecting watermelon, other cucurbits, and weeds in the parts of southern United States. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2012-0824-01-RS.



Table 1. Viruses that were tested by dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) using their polyclonal antibodies or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using virus specific primers.

Family Genus Virus Acronym Trans-
mission
Reported
in the
USA
Bromoviridae Alfamovirus Alfalfa mosaic virus AMV Aphids Yes
Cucumovirus Cucumber mosaic virus CMV Aphids Yes
Bunyaviridae Tospovirus Watermelon silver mottle virus WSMoV Thrips No
Closteroviridae Crinivirus Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus CYSDV* Whitefly Yes
Geminiviridae Begomovirus Squash leaf curl virus SLCuV Whitefly Yes
Luteoviridae Polerovirus Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus CABYV Aphids Yes
Potyviridae Potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus PRSV-W Aphids Yes
Soybean mosaic virus SMV Aphids Yes
Watermelon mosaic virus WMV Aphids Yes
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus ZYMV Aphids Yes
Ipomovirus Squash vein yellowing virus SqVYV* Whitefly Yes
Secoviridae Comovirus Bean pod mottle virus BPMV Beetle Yes
Squash mosaic virus SqMV Beetle Yes
Nepovirus Tobacco ringspot virus TRSV Nematode Yes
Tombusviridae Carmovirus Melon necrotic spot virus MNSV Seed/fungus Yes
Virgaviridae Tobamovirus Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus CGMMV Seed/fungus No
Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus ZGMMV Seed/fungus No

 * Tested by RT-PCR using virus specific primers due to non-availability of virus antisera.



Table 2. Number of samples collected from cucurbits, other agricultural crops, and weeds in 10 states during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.

Hosts AL AR FL GA KY LA MS MO OK TX Total
Cucumber 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 6
Cantaloupe 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 16 6 26
Watermelon 9 36 1 2 0 1 5 1 142 296 493
Pumpkin 1 16 1 0 1 0 6 0 21 0 46
Squash 2 0 5 0 0 1 5 0 6 1 20
Other crops 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46 4 50
Weeds 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 69 5 74
Total 13 55 9 2 1 3 17 1 300 314 715

Other crops included eggplant, pepper, snap bean, soybean, sunflower, and tomato), while weeds contained devilís claw, groundcherry, morningglory, nightshade, Palmer amaranth, and ragweed (see Table 4).



Table 3. Frequency of known viruses in watermelon, other cucurbits, and weeds or agricultural crops in 10 states during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.*

State Sample
(n)
Number of samples positive by DIBA
AMV BPMV CABYV CMV MNSV PRSV-W SLCuV SMV SqMV TRSV WMV WSMoV ZYMV
AL 13 0 0 2 0 0 3 4 0 0 0 6 0 4
AR 55 0 0 0 1 0 22 0 0 0 2 50 0 9
FL 9 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 7 0 0
GA 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
KY 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
LA 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
MS 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0
MO 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
OK 300 9 4 0 8 4 110 0 2 14 11 33 0 37
TX 314 0 6 1 2 15 33 4 0 11 28 111 1 50
Total 715 9 10 3 12 19 177 8 2 25 41 219 3 100
% infection 1.3 1.4 0.4 1.7 2.6 24.7 1.1 0.3 3.5 5.7 30.6 0.4 13.9

 * Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Cucurbit aphid born yellows virus (CABYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Papaya ringspot virus-W (PRSV-W), Squash leaf curl virus (SLCuV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus (ZGMMV). None of the samples was positive for CGMMV, SqVYV, CYSDV, and ZGMMV. Samples include 6 cucumber, 26 cantaloupe, 46 pumpkin, 20 squash, 493 watermelon, 50 from six other crops (eggplant, pepper, snap bean, soybean, sunflower, and tomato), 74 from six weeds (devilís claw, groundcherry, morningglory, nightshade, Palmer amaranth, and ragweed) and were tested by dot-immunobinding assays (DIBA).



Table 4. Frequency of viruses in agricultural crops and weeds in two states during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.*

State Host species name Samples
collected
Number of samples positive by DIBA
Common Scientific AMV BPMV CMV SqMV TRSV PRSV-W ZYMV
OK Eggplant Solanum melongena 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pepper Capsicum annuum 35 7 2 2 0 0 0 0
Soybean Glycine max 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Tomato Solanum lycopersicum 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Devilís claw Proboscidea louisianica 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Groundcherry Physalis angulata 25 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Morningglory Ipomoea hederacea 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nightshade Solanum nigram 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Palmer amaranth Amaranthus palmeri 23 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
TX Snap bean Phaseolus vulgaris 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Sunflower Helianthus annuus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nightshade (s) Solanum nigram 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Palmer amaranth Amaranthus palmeri 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ragweed Ambrosia artemisifolia 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Total 124 8 2 3 1 1 1 1

 * No weeds samples were received from other states.The remaining viruses (CABYV, CGMMV, CYSDV, MNSV, SLCV, SMV, SqVYV, WMV, WSMoV, and ZGMMV) were not detected.



Table 5. Frequency of mixed infection of viruses infecting watermelon and other
cucurbit crops in southern United States during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.*

Virus
combination
AR FL MS OK TX
Frequency (%)
WMV+PRSV-W 27.2 77.7 0 5.3 14.9
WMV+ZYMV 12.7 0 0 0 9.2
PRSV-W+ZYMV 7.2 0 0 2.6 5.0
WMV+PRSV-W+ZYMV 5.4 0 0 0 2.8
TRSV+MNSV 0 0 0 0.6 0.6
TRSV+SqMV 0 0 0 1.0 0.3
Potyvirus*+SLCV 0 0 23.5 0 2.2
Potyvirus*+SqMV 1.8 0 0 5.6 3.8
Potyvirus*+TRSV 1.8 0 0 3.3 4.8
Potyvirus*+MNSV 1.8 0 0 3.0 4.1

 * Potyviruses included PRSV-W, WMV-2, or ZYMV.






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