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Tables 1 to 6:


Powell, M., Cowan, J., Miles, C., and Inglis, D. A. 2013. Effect of a high tunnel, organic cropping system on lettuce diseases in western Washington. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-09XX-01-RS.



Table 1. Lettuce cultivars evaluated.

Year Lettuce type Cultivar
2010, 2011 Boston Adrianaw,x
Ermosaw,y
Leaf Green Stary
New Red Firey
Romaine Coastal Stary
Jerichow,x
2012 Crisphead Conceptz
Nevadaw,x
Leaf New Red Firey
Red Sailsy
Romaine Coastal Stary
Valmainex

 w Cultivars described as either tip burn tolerant or resistant
by seed suppliers.

 x Seeds supplied from Territorial Seed (Cottage Grove, OR).

 y Seeds supplied from Jonny's Selected Seed (Windslow, ME).

 z Seeds supplied from Seeds of Change (Rancho Dominguez, CA).



Table 2. Yearly lettuce planting, high tunnel construction and fertigation schedules.

Year Date
 seeded
v
Date
trans-
planted
Date high
tunnel
constructed
Greenhouse
fertilizer
application
w
Field
fertilizer
application
x
Irrigation
schedule
y
Fertigation
schedule
z
2010 11 Mar 22 Apr 19 Apr 25 Mar 7 Apr 22 Apr-
1 Jul
7 May-
4 Jun
2011 10 Mar 22 Apr 29 Apr 25 Mar,
7 Apr
20 Apr 22 Apr-
28 Jun
16 May-
14 Jun
2012 12 Mar 22 Apr 20 Apr 11 Apr 17 Apr 26 Apr-
9 Jul
21 May-
19 Jun

 v Two lettuce cultivars, Nevada and Valmaine, were seeded on 5 Apr 2012.

 w Foliar fertilizers Drammatic K (2.0-5.0-0.2; Dramm Corporation, Manitowoc, WI) in 2010 and 2012, and Organic BioLink 3-3-3 (Westbridge Ag Products, Vista, CA) in 2011 were applied at 250:1 water:fertilizer ratio.

 x Fertilizers Par4 9-3-7 organic (North Pacific Ag Products, Portland, OR) in 2010 and 2011, and Proganic 8-2-4 (Wilbur Ellis, Wenatchee, WA) in 2012 were broadcast applied at 90 kg N/ha.

 y In 2010 and 2011 drip irrigation was done at 63.5 mm twice per week, but in 2012 drip irrigation was spread out at 25.4 mm, five times per week.

 z Three fertigation events with Converted Organics 521 (Converted Organics of California LLC, Gonzales, CA) totaled 133, 54, and 27 g of N, P, and K respectively in 2010 and 2011, but amounts were reduced to 95, 38, and 19 g of N, P, and K, respectively, in 2012.



Table 3. Disease incidence on lettuce cultivars at harvest, by production system and cultivar.

    Gray mold (% incidence) Lettuce drop (% incidence)
Location 2010v 2011v 2012w 2010v 2011v 2012v
High tunnel 11.5      6.1 ax - 3.9 3.2   9.8 a
Open field  3.1    1.8 b - 5.6 2.7   2.2 b
LSD (P = 0.05) NSDy 2.3     - NSD NSD 3.5
Cultivar High tunnel Open field     
Adriana   0.5 b 7.6 a 5.0 3.2
Coastal Star 12.4 a 4.8 a 55.4 a 4.5 b 10.9    3.4 10.8   
Concept z 28.2 b 3.6 b 5.5
Ermosa   1.4 b 6.9 a 2.9 4.1
Green Star   0.0 b 0.0 b 0.9 1.8
Jericho 29.5 a  1.8 ab 1.8 1.8
Nevada 20.5 b 0.0 b 3.2
New Red Fire   0.0 b 2.9 a 19.1 b 3.6 b 6.9 3.2 10.8   
Red Sails 23.4 b 24.1 a   1.3
Valmaine 25.2 b 0.0 b 4.4
LSD (P = 0.05) 7.0 3.9     14.2    6.1    NSD NSD NSD

 v Non-transformed values for percent incidence and LSD are presented, and mean separation is reported for reciprocal transformed data.

 w A significant interaction between location and cultivar were detected.

 x Numbers within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) as determined by Fisher's protected LSD.

 y NSD = no significant difference.

 z — indicates cultivar was not tested during the crop year.



Table 4. Number and viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum collected from lettuce heads harvested from high tunnels (HT) and open field plots (OF) in 2012.

Type Cultivar Affected heads
w/ sclerotia
(%)
Total sclerotia
recovered
w
Viable sclerotia
(%)
HT OF HT OF HT OF
Crisphead Concept 1.8 0.0 67 0 50  —x
Nevada 1.8 0.0 106 0 0
Leaf New Red Fire 0.9 0.9 29 38 0 0
Red Sails 0.9 0.0 3 0 100y
Romaine Coastal Star 3.6 2.8 528 46 60z 40
Valmaine 6.3 2.0 498 50 75 0

 w Sclerotia were removed from individual heads per subplot (replicated four times), and tallied.

 x — indicates sclerotial viability was not tested as no sclerotia were recovered.

 y Only three sclerotia were recovered from one Red Sails plant but they all were assessed for viability.

 z Only two sclerotia were recovered from one Coastal Star plant and both were assessed for viability.



Table 5. Total and marketable lettuce yield between production system and cultivar.

    Production
system
Total yield (kg/plot)t Marketable yield (kg/plot)t
2010u 2011u 2012u 2010 2011v,w 2012
High tunnel 16.6 19.6    17.5 bx  8.4 - -  8.2 b
Open Field 17.0 19.8     20.8 a 10.1 - -  9.8 a
LSD (P = 0.05) NSDy NSD 1.6   NSD - - 0.9   
Type Cultivar High tunnel Open field  
Boston Adriana 18.6 13.7 c  7.6 6.3 c   7.5 bc
Ermosa 11.7 8.9 d  8.3 5.0 c 5.4 c
Crisphead Concept z 22.1 b 11.1 b  
Nevada 13.2 d   7.4 cd 
Leaf Green Star 15.0 26.6 b 10.3 19.0 a    13.3 a
New Red Fire 16.2 9.9 d 11.9 d  9.5 6.2 c   5.7 c 5.6 e
Red Sails 11.9 d  6.1 de
Romaine Coastal Star 17.7  27.7 ab 38.1 a 11.3 11.5 b    10.0 b 15.8 a   
Jericho 21.6 31.1 a    8.3 4.3 c   8.5 b
Valmaine 17.7 c 8.3 c  
LSD (P = 0.05) NSD 3.0   2.8   NSD 3.3 2.6  1.6    

 t Data from 2010 and 2011 previously reported (17), but mean separations for marketable yield from 2011 are by production system.

 u Non-transformed values for yield and LSD are presented, and mean separation is reported for log10 transformed data.

 v Non-transformed values for yield and LSD are presented, and mean separation is reported for square-root transformed data.

 w A significant interaction between production system and cultivar were detected.

 x Numbers within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly different (P = 0.05) asdetermined by Fisher's protected LSD.

 y NSD = no significant difference.

 z — indicates that the cultivar was not evaluated during the growing season.



Table 6. Number of lettuce heads affected by tipburn.

    Tip burn (% affected)
Production system 2011w 2012 w
High tunnel 13.1 ax -y
Open field 4.4 b -
LSD (P = 0.05) 6.7    -
Cultivar High tunnel Open field
Adriana 1.4 c
Coastal Star 7.3 b 2.7 bc 1.8 b
Concept z 1.8 bc 0.0 b
Ermosa 0.5 c
Green Star 0.9 c
Jericho 41.9 a   
Nevada 0.0 c   0.0 b
New Red Fire 0.5 c 18.1 a    10.9 a  
Red Sails 25.2 a    0.9 b
Valmaine  6.3 ab 0.0 b
LSD (P = 0.05) 7.7    16.4       7.1   

 w Non-transformed values for percent incidence and LSD are presented, and
mean separation is reported for rank transformed data.

 x Numbers within a column followed by the same letter are not significantly
different (P = 0.05) as determined by Fisher's protected LSD.

 y - indicates that a significant interaction was detected among production system
and cultivar.

 z — indicates that the cultivar was not evaluated during the growing season.





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