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© 2008 Plant Management Network.
Accepted for publication 21 December 2007. Published 18 March 2008.


A Synopsis of Phytophthora with Accurate Scientific Names, Host Range, and Geographic Distribution


Erica T. Cline, Research Associate, David F. Farr, Research Scientist, and Amy Y. Rossman, Research Scientist, Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory, USDA Agricultural Research Service, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350


Corresponding author: Amy Y. Rossman. Amy.Rossman@ars.usda.gov


Cline, E. T., Farr, D. F., and Rossman, A. Y. 2008. A synopsis of Phytophthora with accurate scientific names, host range, and geographic distribution. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2008-0318-01-RS.


Abstract

The genus Phytophthora includes species causing diseases such as late blight of potatoes, Phytophthora infestans, and sudden oak death and ramorum blight, P. ramorum. Because of the importance of diseases caused by Phytophthora, there is a need to have rapid access to the literature using their scientific names. The literature has been reviewed for all names in Phytophthora in order to provide the scientific name of each accepted species with authors and synonyms as well as the plant host range and worldwide geographic distribution. Within the genus Phytophthora, there are 87 accepted species and six infraspecific taxa. After compiling all available reports of Phytophthora, it was determined that 39 species and six infraspecific taxa, or about one-half of the accepted species, are not known to occur in the United States. The accurate scientific names of accepted species of Phytophthora are listed in two tables based on their presence or absence in the United States. Each species name is hyperlinked to databases that provide full synonymy and references documenting the host range and geographic distribution information. These data are continuously updated as new literature is published. Having rapid access to information about species of Phytophthora is critical for protecting the United States from the introduction of these potentially devastating pathogens.


The genus Phytophthora includes species causing diseases such as late blight of potatoes, Phytophthora infestans, and sudden oak death and ramorum blight, P. ramorum, which can inflict considerable damage on their hosts. The Irish potato famine in the 1840s caused by P. infestans resulted in millions of deaths and triggered a significant ethnic migration (1). The full consequences of the introduction of Phytophthora ramorum to the western United States remain to be determined, but the financial impact is already staggering (2).

The recent advent of sudden oak death in Europe and western North America has sparked a resurgence of taxonomic interest in Phytophthora. Species of the genus Phytophthora were thoroughly and ably reviewed by Erwin & Ribeiro in 1996 (1), who included 59 species with five varieties. Since that publication, however, 28 new species of Phytophthora or about one-third of the known taxa have been described along with a number of other taxonomic changes. As of December 2007, seven new species have been proposed but not yet formally described. The significant economic impact of diseases caused by Phytophthora spp., many of them recently described, has reinforced the need for an up-to-date synopsis of Phytophthora.

Here we present a listing of the accepted species and infraspecific taxa currently included in Phytophthora based on the available taxonomic and plant pathology literature. For each species the published literature is summarized including the accepted scientific name with authors as well as a summary of the plant host range and worldwide geographic distribution. The authors of scientific names are abbreviated according to the recommendation of Brummitt & Powell (3), now considered the standard for all organisms with nomenclature governed by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Each name is hyperlinked to a more detailed account available at the website of the USDA Agricultural Research Service Systematic Mycology & Microbiology Laboratory (4). For each species data are provided that include the accepted scientific name with authors, synonyms, substrate affected, disease characteristics, plant host range, worldwide geographic distribution, and important recent literature, along with source literature and specimens that document this information. These databases are continuously updated as new literature is published, thus the hyperlinks allow the user to obtain recent information about each species of Phytophthora. In this paper we present a synopsis of these data as two tables including the scientific name with authors and a summary of host and geographic distribution. One table includes taxa that do not occur in the United States (Table 1) while the other lists taxa that occur in the United States (Table 2). In addition seven provisional names, four invalidly published names, and one potential name in Phythophthora are listed in Table 3. Many of the accepted species of Phytophthora have synonyms that are not listed in these tables but are included at the website. Some older reports were made using names now considered synonyms; thus, the ability to search using all synonymous names is critical in accurately determining the full host range and geographic distribution for a species. Access to updated information is especially important as surveys for Phytophthora provide new reports of species not previously known in the United States and throughout the world.

Currently, there are 87 accepted species and six infraspecific taxa in the genus Phytophthora. An additional seventy names in Phytophthora are treated as synonyms, 15 are referred to other genera, and at least 12 names have been proposed in the literature but have not been validly published. At present 47 taxa of Phytophthora or about half of the described taxa have not been reported in the United States. These include 40 species, one hybrid species, two subspecies, three varieties, and one forma specialis (Table 1). With increased surveys for Phytophthora, new records are being reported such as the two species, P. inundata and P. quercina, previously unknown in the United States reported to occur here in 2007 or the recent discovery of P. kernoviae in New Zealand by Ramsfield et al. (5).


Table 1. Phytophthora not reported in the United States.

Scientific name Hosts Geographic distribution
Phytophthora alni Brasier & S.A. Kirk 2004 subsp. alni Alnus spp. (Betulaceae) Europe
Phytophthora alni subsp. multiformis Brasier & S.A. Kirk 2004 Alnus spp. (Betulaceae) Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, UK)
Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis Brasier & S.A. Kirk 2004 Alnus spp. (Betulaceae) Europe
Phytophthora alticola Maseko, Coutinho & M.J. Wingf. 2007 Eucalyptus badjensis (Myrtaceae) South Africa
Phytophthora austrocedrae Greslebin & Hansen 2007 Austrocedrus chilensis (Cupressaceae) South America (Argentina)
Phytophthora boehmeriae Sawada 1927 Citrus spp. (Rutaceae) and various other families Africa (South Africa), Asia, Australia and Papua New Guinea, Europe (Greece), South America (Argentina)
Phytophthora botryosa Chee 1969 Colocasia (Araceae), Hevea (Euphorbiaceae); when inoculated, Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae) Asia (China, Malaysia, Thailand, Andaman Islands, Vietnam)
Phytophthora ×cactorum-nicotianae Man in 't Veld et al. 1998 Six genera in six families, including Cyclamen, Eriobotrya, Lavandula, Lewisia, Primula, Spathiphyllum Europe (the Netherlands in hydroponic greenhouses), Asia (Taiwan)
Phytophthora cajani K.M. Amin, Baldev & F.J. Williams 1978 Cajanus cajani (Fabaceae) Asia (India)
Phytophthora canavaliae Hara 1932 Canavalia ensiformis (Fabaceae) Asia (Japan)
Phytophthora captiosa M.A. Dick & Dobbie 2006 Eucalyptus botryoides, E. saligna (Myrtaceae) New Zealand
Phytophthora cinnamomi var. parvispora Kröber & Marwitz 1993 Beaucarnea sp. (Agavaceae) Europe (Germany)
Phytophthora cinnamomi var. robiniae H.H. Ho 2002 Robinia pseudoacacia (Fabaceae) Asia (China)
Phytophthora clandestina P.A. Taylor, Pascoe & F.C. Greenh. 1985 Medicago spp., Trifolium subterraneum, (Fabaceae) Australia
Phytophthora colocasiae Rabenh. 1900 Colocasia esculenta (taro) and other Araceae; also six genera in five other families Africa (Ethiopia, East Africa, Fernando Po), Asia, Caribbean (Dominican Republic), North America (USA: CA, NC, HI), Pacific Islands, South America (Brazil, Argentina)
Phytophthora cyperi-bulbosi Seethal. & K. Ramakr. 1953 Cyperus bulbosus (Cyperaceae) Asia (India)
Phytophthora fallax M.A. Dick & Dobbie 2006 Eucalyptus botryoides, E. saligna (Myrtaceae) New Zealand
Phytophthora frigida Maseko, Coutinho & M.J. Wingf. 2007 Eucalyptus smithii (Myrtaceae) South Africa
Phytophthora humicola W.H. Ko & Ann 1985 Natural host unknown, isolated from Citrus orchard (Rutaceae); when inoculated, Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) and Malus domestica (Rosaceae) Asia (Taiwan)

Phytophthora idaei D.M. Kenn. 1995
Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae) Europe (UK)
Phytophthora ipomoeae Flier & Grünwald 2002 Ipomoea longipedunculata, I. purpurea (Convolvulaceae) North America (Mexico)
Phytophthora iranica Ershad 1971 Solanaceae; when inoculated, Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae) Asia (Iran)
Phytophthora italica Cacciola, Magnano & Belisario 1996 Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae) Europe (Italy)
Phytophthora japonica G.M. Waterh. 1974 Oryza sativa (Poaceae) Asia (Japan)
Phytophthora kernoviae Brasier, Beales & S.A. Kirk 2005 Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur (Fagaceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae), Rhododendron ponticum (Ericaceae) Europe (UK); New Zealand
Phytophthora leersiae Sawada ex H.H. Ho & H.S. Chang 1992 Leersia hexandra (Poaceae) Asia (China, Taiwan)
Phytophthora lepironiae Sawada 1919 Lepironia spp. (Cyperaceae) Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan)
Phytophthora macrochlamydospora J.A.G. Irwin 1991 Glycine max (Fabaceae) Australia

Phytophthora megakarya Brasier & M.J. Griffin 1979
Irvingia sp. (Irvingiaceae) Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae), West Africa
Phytophthora melonis Katsura 1976 Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis sativus, Trichosanthes dioica (Cucurbitaceae), Pistacia vera (Anacardiaceae) Asia (China, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Taiwan)
Phytophthora mexicana Hotson & Hartge 1923 Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae) North America (Mexico), possibly introduced from the Netherlands (1)
Phytophthora mirabilis Galindo & H.R. Hohl 1986 Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae) North America (Mexico)
Phytophthora multivesiculata Ilieva, Man in 't Veld, W. Veenb.-Rijks & R. Pieters 1998 Cymbidium sp. (Orchidaceae) Europe (the Netherlands)
Phytophthora oryzo-bladis J.S. Wang & J.Y. Lu ex H.H. Ho 2001 Oryza sativa (Poaceae) Asia (China)
Phytophthora palmivora var. heterocystica Babacauh 1983 Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae) Africa (Ivory Coast); may not be distinct from P. palmivora
Phytophthora pistaciae Mirab. 2001 Pistacia vera (Anacardiaceae) Asia (Iran)
Phytophthora polonica Belbahri, Moralejo & Lefort 2007 Isolated from soil associated with Alnus glutinosa Poland
Phytophthora polygoni Sawada 1922 Polygonum spp., Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae) Asia (China, Taiwan)
Phytophthora porri Foister 1931 Allium spp. (Liliaceae), five other genera in five families Africa (South Africa), Asia (Japan), Australia, Europe, North America (Canada). The report from USA: WI is actually Phytophthora brassicae.

Phytophthora primulae J.A. Tomlinson 1952
Primula spp. (Primulaceae) Europe (Denmark, Germany, UK), New Zealand
Phytophthora psychrophila T. Jung & E.M. Hansen 2002 Ilex aquifolium (Aquifoliaceae), Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) when inoculated Europe (France, Germany, UK)
Phytophthora quininea Crand. 1947 Cinchona spp. (Rubiaceae) Central America (Guatemala), Caribbean Islands (Puerto Rico), South America (Bolivia, Peru)
Phytophthora tentaculata Kröber & Marwitz 1993 Chrysanthemum spp., Santolina (Asteraceae), Verbena (Verbenaceae) Europe (Spain, Germany)
Phytophthora uliginosa T. Jung & E.M. Hansen 2002 Quercus robur, Quercus petraea (Fagaceae) Europe (Poland, Germany)
Phytophthora verrucosa Alcock & Foister 1940 Four families including Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae) Europe (UK)
Phytophthora vignae Purss 1957 Cajanus cajani, Vigna spp.

(Fabaceae); when inoculated, Malus domestica (Rosaceae) and Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae)

Asia (China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Sri Lanka, Taiwan), Australia
Phytophthora vignae f. sp. adzukicola S. Tsuchiya, Yanagawa & Ogoshi 1986 Phaseolus radiatus var. aurea, Vigna angularis (Fabaceae) Asia (Japan)

The synopsis of Phytophthora not known to occur in the United States provides a framework to guide more extensive investigations of the biology and geographic distribution of these important organisms especially for those charged with preventing their entry into the United States. Which of these species pose a threat to the United States as invasive species? One might assume that species most threatening are those that occur in temperate regions on perennial hosts such as the recently described taxa on trees in the Betulaceae, i.e., P. alni and its subspecies, those having a broad host range such as P. kernoviae on Ericaceae, Fagaceae, and Magnoliaceae, or those on perennial crops such as P. idaei on Rubus idaeus. Species that are known to occur close to US borders such as P. mexicana on Lycopersicon esculenta also pose a significant threat.

The species of Phytophthora already known to occur in the United States are listed in Table 2. Many of these species such as P. cinnamomi and P. cryptogea are cosmopolitan reported on a wide range of host plants. Others occur on only a restricted number of hosts such as P. ilicis on Ilex spp. or have been reported once in the US such as P. hibernalis on Citrus reported only from California or P. heveae reported on a wide range of hosts, primarily tropical ones, but also known from North Carolina and Tennessee in the US. A few species of Phytophthora are known only from Hawaii, specifically P. katsurae reported throughout the tropics on diverse woody plants and P. meadii reported in Asia and Australia on various plant families. Known previously only from Europe, Phytophthora quercina was recently isolated from soil under declining oaks in Missouri (6) as was P. inundata from soil in California (7).


Table 2. Phytophthora reported in the United States.

Scientific name Hosts Geographic distribution
Phytophthora brassicae DeCock & Man in’t Veld 2002 Brassica oleracea and B. sinenses (Brassicaceae) Europe (Germany, UK); North America (USA: WI)
Phytophthora cactorum (Lebert & Cohn) J. Schröt. 1886 154 genera in 54 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora cambivora (Petri) Buisman 1927 30 genera in 19 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora capsici Leonian 1922 P. capsici sensu lato infects 51 genera in 28 families, including Capsicum annuum, Lycopersicon esculentum and other Solanaceae. Aragaki & Uchida (9) refer isolates from non-Capsicum hosts to P. tropicalis Cosmopolitan. Tropical species may now be considered P. tropicalis
Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands 1922 var. cinnamomi 266 genera in 90 families, commonly hardwood trees Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora citricola Sawada 1927 75 genera in 38 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora citrophthora (R.E. Sm. & E.H. Sm.) Leonian 1906 88 genera in 51 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. & Laff. 1919 141 genera in 49 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora cyperi (Ideta) Ito 1935 Cyperus spp. (Cyperaceae), Digitaria ciliaris (Poaceae) Africa (Sudan), Asia, Europe (UK), North America (USA: SC, TX)
Phytophthora drechsleri Tucker 1931 113 genera in 40 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethybr. 1913 Principal hosts Solanaceae, 15 genera in 10 other families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora europaea E.M. Hansen & T. Jung 2002 Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) Europe (France, Germany), North America (USA)
Phytophthora foliorum Donahoo & Lamour 2006 Rhododendron sp. (Ericaceae) North America (USA: CA, TN)
Phytophthora fragariae Hickman 1940 var. fragariae Fragaria ×ananassa and Rubus ursinus var. longanobaccus (Rosaceae); when inoculated, other Rosaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Solanaceae on (1) Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, North America (Canada, USA)

Phytophthora gonapodyides (H.E. Petersen) Buisman 1927
13 genera in 11 families, including Malus spp. (Rosaceae), also on Pinaceae seedlings including Abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana Australia, New Zealand, Europe (Denmark), North America (USA), South America (Chile)
Phytophthora hedraiandra De Cock & Man in 't Veld 2004 Rhododendron (Ericaceae), Viburnum (Adoxaceae), Europe (the Netherlands, Slovakia), North America (USA: MN)
Phytophthora heveae A. Thomps. 1929 12 genera in 11 families including Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Hevea (Euphorbiaceae) and Rhododendron (Ericaceae) Asia, Australasia, North America (USA: NC, TN), South America (Brazil)
Phytophthora hibernalis Carne 1925 Citrus spp. (Rutaceae), also 11 genera in 9 other families Africa (South Africa); Asia (Israel); Australasia; Europe; North America (USA: CA, OR); Central America, Caribbean Islands; South America (Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela)
Phytophthora ilicis Buddenhagen & R.A. Young 1957 Ilex spp. (Aquifoliaceae) Europe (UK), North America (Canada, USA)
Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary 1876 Principal hosts Solanaceae, also on 15 genera in ten other families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora inflata Caroselli & Tucker 1949 Ulmus spp. (Ulmaceae), also on Rhododendron, Sambucus and Syringa Europe (England), North America (Canada, USA)
Phytophthora insolita Ann & W.H. Ko 1981 Rhododendron (Ericaceae); when inoculated, on fruits of Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) and Malus domestica (Rosaceae) Asia (Taiwan), North America (USA: OH)
Phytophthora inundata Brasier et al. 2003 Various families, including Aesculus hippocastanum (Sapindaceae), Olea (Oleaceae), Salix (Salicaceae), and Vitis (Vitaceae) Europe (Denmark, France,

Spain, UK), South America, recently reported in USA (CA)

Phytophthora katsurae W.H. Ko & H.S. Chang 1979 Castanea crenata (Fagaceae), Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae) Africa (Ivory Coast), Asia (Japan, Korea, Taiwan), Caribbean (Jamaica), Pacific Islands (USA: HI), Papua New Guinea
Phytophthora lateralis Tucker & Milbrath 1942 Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Cupressaceae), rarely, Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae); when inoculated, hosts in other families Europe (France), North America (Canada, USA). Reports from New Zealand are doubtful.
Phytophthora meadii McRae 1918 Various families including Hevea spp. (Euphorbiaceae) Asia, Australia, Pacific Islands (USA: HI)
Phytophthora medicaginis E.M. Hansen & D.P. Maxwell 1991 Cicer arietinum, Medicago sativa, Onobrychis viciifolia (Fabaceae), Prunus mahaleb (Rosaceae) Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora megasperma Drechsler 1931 Fabaceae and many other families; isolates previously referred to as P. megasperma are now considered to be three distinct species (10, 11) Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora nemorosa E.M. Hansen & Reeser 2003 Various families, including Lithocarpus densiflorus, Quercus agrifolia (Fagaceae) North America (USA: CA, OR)
Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan 1896 255 genera in 90 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora palmivora (E.J. Butler) E.J. Butler 1919 var. palmivora 160 genera in 60 families Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora phaseoli Thaxt. 1889 Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris (Fabaceae), other families after inoculation (1) Africa (Congo, Zaire), Asia (Philippines, Sri Lanka, USSR), Europe (Italy, Romania), North America (Mexico, USA), Central America and Caribbean Islands, South America (Brazil)
Phytophthora pseudosyringae T. Jung & Delatour 2003 Alnus glutinosa, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus spp. , and other hardwood species Germany, Spain, North America (USA: CA)
Phytophthora pseudotsugae Hamm & E.M. Hansen 1983 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Pinaceae) North America (USA: OR, WA)
Phytophthora quercina T. Jung 1999 Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) Asia (Turkey), Europe (Germany, Hungary, Italy); recently isolated from soil under oak in North America (USA: MO) (4)
Phytophthora ramorum Werres, De Cock & Man in 't Veld 2001 26 genera in 17 families, including Camellia, Rhododendron (Ericaceae) and Quercus (Fagaceae) Europe, North America (Canada, USA: CA, OR, WA)
Phytophthora richardiae Buisman 1927 Asparagus (Asparagaceae), Daucus carota (Apiaceae), Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae), Robinia (Fabaceae), and Zantedeschia (Araceae) Asia, Australasia, Australia, Europe, North America (USA)
Phytophthora rubi (W.F. Wilcox & J.M. Duncan) Man in ‘t Veld 2007 Rubus idaeus var. idaeus (Rosaceae) Cosmopolitan
Phytophthora siskiyouensis Reeser & E.M. Hansen 2007 (12) Isolated from soil and water using Lithocarpus densiflorus (tanoak) (Fagaceae) and Rhododendron spp. (Ericaceae) as leaf baits; also reported from Alnus. North America (USA: CA, OR); Australia
Phytophthora sojae Kaufm. & Gerd. 1958 Glycine max, Lupinus (Fabaceae); also reported from six other genera in five families Australia, New Zealand, Asia (China, Korea), North America (Canada, USA), South America (Brazil, Chile)
Phytophthora syringae (Berk.) Kleb. 1909 29 genera in 14 families, including Syringa vulgaris (Oleaceae) Africa (Morocco, South Africa); Asia (Korea) Australasia; Europe; North America (Canada, USA); South America (Argentina, Brazil, Peru)
Phytophthora trifoliiE.M. Hansen & D.P. Maxwell 1991 Trifolium (Fabaceae) North America (USA: MS)
Phytophthora tropicalis Aragaki & J.Y. Uchida 2001 14 genera in 12 families Pacific Islands (USA: HI), North America (USA: VA, Europe (the Netherlands, Italy), before 2001 reported as Phytophthora capsici, thus geographic distribution unclear


Table 3. Provisional and invalid Phytophthora names.

Name Status Host and/or substrate Location
Phytophthora andina Kroon et al. 2004 (11) Provisional name Solanum spp. (Solanaceae) South America
"Phytophthora asparagi" Chimento et al. 2005 (13) Provisional name Agave sp. (Agavaceae), Asparagus sp. (Asparagaceae), Cosmopolitan
"Phytophthora bisheria" Blair et al. 2006 (14) Provisional name Fragaria ×ananasa, Rosa sp., Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae) Australia, Europe (the Netherlands), North America (USA: NC)
Phytophthora eriugena Clancy & Kavanagh, nom. inval. 1979 Invalidly published, no Latin diagnosis Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Cupressaceae) Europe (Ireland, known only from the type)
Phytophthora erythroseptica var. pisi" Bywater & Hickman, nom. inval. 1959 Invalidly published, no type specimen designated Pisum sativum (Fabaceae) Europe (England)
"Phytophthora glovera" Abad, pers. comm. Provisional name Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) South America (Brazil)
Phytophthora irritabilis Mantri & K.B. Deshp., nom. inval. 1968 Invalidly published, no type specimen designated Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) Asia (India)
"Phytophthora kelmania" Abad et al. 2006 (15) Provisional name Abies spp., Picea spp. (Pinaceae), Gerbera sp. (Asteraceae), Coleus sp. (Lamiaceae) Europe (Spain), North America (USA: NC)
Peronophythora litchi Blair et al. 2006 (14) May belong in Phytophthora Litchi sp. (Sapindaceae) Asia, Europe (the Netherlands)
"Phytophthora niederhauseri" Abad et al. 2006 (15) Provisional name Various genera in multiple families Australia, Europe (Spain), North America (USA: NC)
"Phytophthora persoonii" Abad et al. 2006 (15) Provisional name Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) North America (USA: NC)
"Phytophthora rubra" Mantri & K.B. Deshp., nom. inval. 1968 Invalidly published, no type specimen designated Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) Asia (India)

Data synthesized in this document and presented through the hyperlinks are complete as of 20 December 2007 and will be updated on-line as new data are published. The authors welcome input and suggestions for missing or erroneous data and will make changes to the databases as necessary. With the intense scrutiny that the genus Phytophthora is receiving, changes are inevitable in the distribution of species, discovery of new taxa, and revision of species concepts as currently conceived. Of special note is the progress made in refining the species concepts within Phytophthora especially with the application of molecular systematic tools. Species concepts have changed to reflect their phylogeny and data for some species based on the literature is not accurate. For example, in molecular analyses Phytophthora undulata (H.E. Petersen) M.W. Dick 1989 clusters within the genus Pythium (8), and this species should be rereferred to by original name Pythium undulatum H.E. Petersen 1910. Although for some species of Phytophthora accurate identifications can be made based on morphology, increasingly identification requires sequencing of specific gene regions and "blasting" against databases of known sequences such as that available at the Phytophthora database at Pennsylvania State University.

This publication is intended to focus attention on those species of Phytophthora not yet present in the United States in the effort to safeguard US agriculture and protect native ecosystems. Accurate information about scientific names, geographic distribution, and plant host range provides the basis for tracking the movement and effective protection from introduction of invasive plant pathogens.


Literature Cited

1. Erwin, D. C., and Ribeiro, O. K. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

2. Reinherd, C. 2006. Impact of Phytophthora ramorum upon regulatory activities in Western states. Phytopathology 96:S146.

3. Brummitt, R. K., and Powell, C. E. 1992. Authors of Plant Names. Kew Royal Botanical Gardens, Cumbria, UK.

2. Farr, D. F., Rossman, A. Y., Palm, M. E., and McCray, E. B. 2008. Online. Fungal Databases, Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA.

5. Ramsfield, T. D., Dick, M. A., Beever, R. E., and Horner, I. J. 2007. Phytophthora kernoviae – of southern hemisphere origin? Online. Fourth IUFRO Working Party Meeting on Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystema, 26-31 August 2007, Monterey, Calif. Coll. of Nat. Resourc., Univ. of Calif., Berkeley.

6. Schwingle, B. W., Juzwik, J., and Moltzan, B. 2007. Phytophthora species in soils associated with declining and nondeclining oaks in Missouri forests. Plant Dis. 91:633.

7. Ho, H. H., Hong, C. X., and Erwin, D. C. 2006. Phytophthora inundata isolated from diseased alfalfa roots in southern California. Mycotaxon 97:349-358.

8. Villa, N. O., Kageyama, K., Asano, T., and Suga, H. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of Pythium and Phytophthora species based on ITS rDNA, cytochrome oxidase II and beta-tubulin gene sequences. Mycologia 98:410-422.

9. Aragaki, M., and Uchida, J. Y. 2001. Morphological distinctions between Phytophthora capsici and P. tropicalis sp. nov. Mycologia 93:137-145.

10. Cooke, D. E. L., Drenth, A., Duncan, J. M., Wagels, G., and Brasier, C. M. 2000. A molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related Oomycetes. Fungal Genet. Biol. 30:17-32.

11. Kroon, L. P. N. M., Bakker, F. T., van den Bosch, G. B. M., Bonants, P. J. M., and Flier, W. G. 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of Phytophthora species based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNS sequences. Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:766-782.

12. Reeser, P. W., Hansen, E. M., and Sutton, W. L. 2007. Phytophthora siskiyouensis, a new species from soil, water, myrtlewood (Umbellularia californica) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) in southwestern Oregon. Mycologia 99:639-643.

13. Chimento, A., Scibetta, S., Schena, L., Cacciola, S. O., Green, K. R., and Cooke, D. E. L. 2005. The detection of Phytophthora in asparagus. J. Plant Path. 87:S291.

14. Blair, J. E., Kang, S., Geiser, D. M., and Coffey, M. 2006. A genus-wide phylogeny for Phytophthora utilizing whole genome sequence data. Phytopathology 96:S12.

15. Abad, Z. A., Abad, J. A., and Creswell, T. 2006. Species of Phytophthora and Pythium identified in a long term collection from North Carolina. Phytopathology 96:S1.