Fig. 5. Summary plots for the spacetime point pattern analysis for sweet potato little leaf V4 (SPLLV4). Time was defined as the month in which a plant was found to be symptomatic and infected by SPLLV4. The Data map (A) represents the observed locations of SPLLV4infected papaya within the papaya plantation. The Dzero plot (B) is a perspective plot that examines the difference between the spacetime K function and the product of the space and time K functions and is written as:
D_{0} =  K(s,t)  K(s)K(t)  [4]  K(s)K(t) 
The Residual Plot (C) is a plot of standardized residuals against the product of the space and time K functions. This plot is similar to a residual plot from regression analysis and values ±2 are indicative of a spacetime interaction occurring. Finally, the MC results (D) summarizes all of the test statistics from a Monte Carlo simulation, whereby, the time data for each SPLLV4infected location was randomly assigned to the fixed locations for SPLLV4infected papaya.
Image from Plant Health Progress article:
An Application of SpaceTime Analysis to Improve the Epidemiological Understanding of the PapayaPapaya Yellow Crinkle Pathosystem
