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Lupins, a New Host of Phytophthora erythroseptica in Spain


A. Trapero-Casas, A. Rodríguez-Tello,
and W. J. Kaiser, Departamento de Agronomía, ETSIAM, Universidad de Córdoba, Apartado 3048, 14080 Córdoba, Spain


Posted 9 June 2000. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2000-0609-01-HN.

Reproduced, with permission, from Plant Disease, April 2000.


Several lupin (Lupinus) species are native to southern Spain (2). The white lupin, Lupinus albus L., is the most important crop, and its seeds are used for human consumption and animal feed. Accessions of three indigenous species, L. albus, L. angustifolius L., and L. luteus L., and an introduced species from South America, L. mutabilis Sweet, were planted during October in replicated yield trials in acidic soils (pH 6.5) in the Sierra Morena Mountains (elevation 350 m) north of Córdoba. Root and crown rot disease was widespread and very serious on the indigenous lupins, particularly in several patches of white lupin cultivars. Infected plants were devoid of feeder rootlets, and the tap roots, crowns, and lower stems were necrotic and turned dark brown to black. Rotted roots were colonized heavily by fungal oospores. Many affected plants wilted and died before flowering. A Phytophthora sp. was isolated consistently from the necrotic roots and crowns of symptomatic white lupins. The same fungus also was isolated from the necrotic root tissues of the other indigenous lupin species. Isolates of the fungus from diseased white lupins were homothallic and produced oospores rapidly and abundantly on corn meal and V8 agars. Antheridia were amphigynous, and aplerotic oospores ranged from 22 to 32 µm (average 27 µm). Nonpapillate, ovoid-obpyriform sporangia were produced only in water on simple sympodial sporangiophores. Cultures on V8 agar grew at 5 to 30°C (optimum approximately 25°C). The species was identified as Phytophthora erythroseptica Pethybr. based on morphology of oospores, sporangia, and other cultural characteristics (1). Koch's postulates were fulfilled by planting seeds of white lupin cv. Multulupa in sterile potting soil infested with a blended culture on V8 agar from a white lupin isolate of P. erythroseptica and reisolating the fungus after 28 days from lesions that developed on the roots and crowns of inoculated plants incubated in a greenhouse at 16 to 26°C. The fungus was not isolated from white lupins seeded in potting soil inoculated with sterile V8 agar. In pathogenicity tests, two isolates of P. erythroseptica from white lupins caused severe symptoms on the roots and crowns of inoculated white lupin cv. Multulupa similar to those observed on white lupins naturally infected in field trials. These isolates also caused root and crown rots on inoculated L. luteus and L. angustifolius. The fungus did not infect the roots or crowns of tarwi (L. mutabilis cv. SCG 20), alfalfa (Medicago sativa cv. Moapa), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Contender), chickpea (Cicer arietinum cv. Blanco Lechoso), faba bean (Vicia faba cv. Arboleda), lentil (Lens culinaris cv. local), pea (Pisum sativum cv. Lancet), soybean (Glycine max cv. Akashi), or subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum cv. Seaton-park). The tests were repeated, and the results were similar. This is the first report of P. erythroseptica infecting Lupinus spp.


References

1.  D. C. Erwin and O. K. Ribeiro. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN. 

2.  B. Valdés et al. 1987. Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental. Ketres, Barcelona, Spain.